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Data Structures using C Part 1 - Introduction - What is Data? What is Data structure?
 
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Data Structures using C - Introduction Data The term data comes from its singular form datum, which means a fact. The data is a fact about people, places or some entities. In computers, data is simply the value assigned to a variable. Name = Raj Class = 12, Age = 18 Marks = 80 Subject = Mathematics Data Structure A data structure in Computer Science, is a way of storing and organizing data in a computer’s memory or even disk storage so that it can be used efficiently. ! Data Structure is Not a language To achieve Proper and Systematic arrangement of data. Variety of operations (Insert, delete, search, sort) can be performed using as few resources as possible. Speed up execution and save time and Efficient use of memory space. Data structures are implemented by a programming language by the data types and the references and operations provide by that particular language. Types of Data Structure : Linear data structure A data structure is said to be linear if the elements form a sequence. For example : Array, Stack, Linked list, Queue Non linear data structure elements in a nonlinear data structure do not form a sequence. For example: Trees and Graphs Operations on Data Structure The data manipulation within the data structures are performed by means of certain operations. Inserting Searching Traversing Sorting Deleting ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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C language - Class 1 : What is programming?
 
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What is Programming ? What is a Programming Language ? Generations of Programming Language. Types of Programming Languages. What is Programming ? In simple words, Programming is a task of software development. Programming also means Coding the software. While Programming, We have choices of Programming languages like C, C++, Java to write Programs depending on the purpose, complexity and application area. A Program written in any language is a series or set of instructions (commands) that the computer’s operating system executes (runs) to give the particular Result (output). People need language Like English / Hindi to communicate among them. Similarly, to communicate with computers we need a programming language. We write a Program to achieve a Result. I Generation language (1940 - 1950s) Machine Language II Generation language (1950s) Assembly Languages III Generation language (1970s) Procedural Languages (English like code & Programmer friendly) C, C++, Java, FORTRAN, BASIC, COBOL, etc IV Generation language (1970s through the 2000s) Visual tools (IDEs) - VB, C#, F#, Java, JavaScript, Database Languages. V Generation language (Very Recent) Natural Languages - Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems. ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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C# tips and tricks 5 - Difference between const, readonly and static variables
 
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C# tips and tricks : Difference between const, readonly and static variables const keyword : A variable declared as const must be assigned a value at declaration. And we can not change its value once it is assigned. They are implicitly static by default. You can apply const keyword to built-in value types (byte, short, int, long, char, float, double, decimal, bool), enum, a string literal, or a reference type which can be assigned with a value null. readonly keyword: The value will be initialized either at declaration time or in the constructor.  Read only values will evaluate at runtime only. static keyword: static variables are common to all the objects. Each static variable is shared among all the objects of the same class. and they do not tied to a specific object. ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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Manual testing 31 - What is Static testing and Dynamic testing? Static testing  vs dynamic testing
 
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What is Static testing and Dynamic Testing? Static and Dynamic Testing. Static testing. Static testing techniques. Dynamic testing. Dynamic testing techniques. Difference between static testing and dynamic testing Possible interview questions on static testing and dynamic testing Static and Dynamic Testing are important testing methods available for developers and testers. These are software testing techniques in which the organization must choose carefully which to implement on the software application. Static Testing Static testing manually checks the code, requirement documents, design documents, Test plan and Test scripts to find errors. Hence, the name "static". It is also called as Verification Testing. Static Testing Techniques: • Inspection: Here the main purpose is to find defects. Here a checklist is prepared to review the work documents. • Walkthrough: In this type of technique a meeting is led by author to explain the product. Participants can ask questions and a scribe is assigned to make notes. • Technical reviews: In this type of static testing a technical round of review is conducted to check if the code is made according to technical specifications and standards. Generally, the test plans, test strategy and test scripts are reviewed here. • Informal reviews: Static testing technique in which the document is reviewed informally and informal comments are provided. Dynamic Testing Dynamic Testing checks for functional behavior of software system, CPU usage and overall performance of the system. Hence the name "Dynamic" Dynamic testing is also known as validation testing, evaluating the finished product Types of Dynamic Testing techniques are as follows: • Unit Testing: Testing of individual modules by developers. The source code is tested in it. • Integration Testing: Testing the data flow between the two modules • System Testing: It is End to end testing where in testing server similar to production server. • Acceptance Testing: End user test the application for some particular period of time for real time scenarios Difference between static Static Testing In static testing we do not execute the code It is done in the phase of verification. This testing means “How we prevent” It is not considered as a time-consuming job or task. Static testing is considered as less cost-effective job. Techniques of static testing are inspections, reviews, and walkthroughs etc. Dynamic Testing In dynamic testing we always execute the code. It is done in the phase of validation. This testing means “How we cure”. It is always considered as a time-consuming job or task because it requires several test cases to execute. It is always considered as more cost-effective job. Techniques of dynamic testing is always software testing means testing. Possible interview questions on static testing and dynamic testing What is static testing? What are static testing techniques.? What is dynamic testing? Which are dynamic testing techniques? What are the difference between static testing and dynamic testing ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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Manual testing 20 - What is exploratory testing? How to do exploratory testing and its drawbacks?
 
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Exploratory Testing. How to do Exploratory Testing. When we go for Exploratory Testing Why we should do Exploratory Testing Drawbacks of Exploratory Testing How to overcome the drawbacks of Exploratory Testing Exploratory Testing Explore the application, understand how each and every feature works and based on understanding test the application. How to do Exploratory Testing 1.While doing exploratory testing test engineer will understand the application and try to enter all possible inputs for each and every field 2.Test engineer will understand the application and we will check dataflow by doing Integration Testing. 3.Test Engineer will explore the application, understand each and every feature and we will try to cover all end to end scenarios by doing System testing. When we go for Exploratory Testing 1. No requirements. 2. Due to less time. 3. Unable to understand the requirement. 4. To identify the untested bug functionality of product. 5. To get more information about product. Why we should do Exploratory Testing 1.We can catch all blocker and critical defects. 2. It becomes a powerful way to understand the application in a better manner, build better functional tests and finally enhance the quality of the application. 3.Customer will not be Blocked. Drawbacks of Exploratory Testing. 1.Test engineer might misunderstand the feature as defect. 2.Test engineer might misunderstand the defect as feature. 3.If particular feature is missing test engineer will never get know that the feature is really missing. How to overcome the drawbacks of Exploratory Testing. 1.By interacting with customer or BA. 2.Based on product knowledge. 3.Based on domain knowledge. 4.By using common sense. 5.By comparing the product with similar kind of product. Possible interview questions ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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Manual testing 15 - What is ad-hoc testing? What is buddy testing, pair testing and monkey testing?
 
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Ad-Hoc Testing. Forms of Ad-Hoc Testing. Why we have to do Ad-Hoc Testing When to do Ad-Hoc Testing Who will do Ad-Hoc Testing Ad-hoc Testing:- Testing the application randomly is called Ad-hoc testing. Or Testing application without following any rules and regulations , No documentation, No test designs, No test cases is called as Ad-hoc testing. Here rules and regulations refer to process followed during normal or regular testing. Fox ex during regular testing we follow CRS, SRS, Test plan , Test cases and many more documents to complete our testing. But during Ad-hoc testing we don’t follow any documents (CRS, SRS, Test plan, Test cases) and we simply access application randomly and test it. (Like a monkey typing while dancing). Forms of Adhoc Testing : 1. Buddy Testing: Two buddies, one from development team and one from test team mutually work on identifying defects in the same module. Buddy testing helps the testers develop better test cases while development team can also make design changes early. This kind of testing happens usually after completing the unit testing. 2. Pair Testing: Two testers are assigned the same modules and they share ideas and work on the same systems to find defects. One tester executes the tests while another tester records the notes on their findings. 3. Monkey Testing: Testing is performed randomly without any test cases in order to break the system. NOTE:- • Ad-hoc testing is basically negative testing because we are testing against requirements (out of requirements). • Here, the objective is to somehow break the product. Why we have to do Ad-Hoc testing? • This is mainly done with the aim of trying to uncover defects or flaws which cannot be captured through traditional or formal processes followed during the testing cycle. • End-users use the application randomly and he may see a defect, but professional testers use the application systematically so he may not find the same defect. In order to avoid this scenario, testers should go and then test the application randomly (i.e., behave like and end-user and test). When to do Ad-Hoc testing ? • Whenever we are free, we do Ad-hoc testing. i.e, developers develop the application and give it to testing team. Testing team is given 15 days for doing FT. In that he spends 12 days doing FT and another 3 days he does Ad-hoc testing. We must always do Ad-hoc testing in the last because we always 1st concentrate on customer satisfaction • After testing as per requirements, then we start with ad-hoc testing • When a good scenario comes, we can stop FT, IT, ST and try that scenario for Ad-hoc testing. But we should not spend more time doing Ad-hoc testing and immediately resume with formal testing. • If there are more such scenarios, then we record it and do it at the last when we have time. Who is responsible to Ad-Hoc testing? Testers who have good knowledge of the business and clear understanding of the requirements- Detailed knowledge of the end to end business process will help find defects easily. Experienced testers find more defects as they are better at error guessing. Possible interview questions on ad-hoc testing What is Ad-Hoc Testing. Which are the Forms of Ad-Hoc Testing. Why we have to do Ad-Hoc Testing When to do Ad-Hoc Testing Who will do Ad-Hoc Testing
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Data Structures using C Part 29 - Adjacency List Representation of Graph in c programming
 
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Adjacency List Representation of Graph in c programming : ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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Manual testing 25 - What is Database testing? Types of Database testing | Tools for database testing
 
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What is Database testing? Database Testing. Database Validations. How to test the Database. Steps to do Database testing Types of Database Testing Tools for Database Testing Advantages of Database Testing Possible interview questions on database testing Database Testing Database testing is retrieved values from the database by the web or desktop application Database testing is one of the major testing which requires tester to expertise in checking tables, writing queries and procedures. Database validation • Data mapping. Data mapping is a part of the database testing. It focuses on validating the data traversing backend forth from the application to the backend database. • ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) properties validation. ACID is an acronym for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability. • Data Integrity. This means that any of the create, retrieve, upgrade and delete operations, the updated and most recent values of shared data should appear on all the screens. • Business Rule Conformance: The complexity in databases means more complicated components like relational constraints, triggers, stored procedures, etc. So, testers will have to come up with appropriate SQL queries in order to validate these complex objects. How to test the Database A tester should have a basic level of understanding of database concepts like SQL commands like DDL: Uses CREATE, ALTER, RENAME, DROP and TRUNCATE to handle tables. DML: Includes statements to add, update and delete records. DCL: Grant and Revoke are the two statements used. The following are the steps to do database testing 1) Prepare the environment 2) Run a test 3) Check test result 4) Validate according to the expected results 5) Report the findings to the respective stakeholders Types of Database Testing • Functional Testing: It is used to check the functionality of database from user point of view. The types of Functional testing are White box and black box testing. • Non-Functional Testing: It is used to test load-testing, risk testing in database, stress testing and deals with the performance of the database. • Structural Testing: It deals with table and column testing, schema testing, stored procedures and views testing, checking triggers, etc. Tools for Database testing • Test Data Generator • Data Generator • Data Factory • TurboData • SQLUnit • DBUnit Advantages of Database testing 1. Several issues or bugs can be efficiently discovered in the initial development position. 2. Database testing on the other hand in black box testing we test the functionality of the software or application without any code review. Possible interview questions on database testing What is Database Testing. What are Database Validations. How to test the Database. Which are the Steps to do Database testing Which are the Types of Database Testing Which are the tools for Database Testing What are Advantages of Database Testing ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
Views: 1353 Ankpro Training
Selenium with C# 1 - What is Selenium? Why Selenium for web automation? Advantages of selenium
 
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Selenium automation tool In this session we will discuss about 1. What is automation 2. Why automation 3. Tool for web automation 4. Why selenium 5. Benefits of selenium What is Software testing? Software testing is a process of executing a program or application with the intent of finding the software bugs. What is Manual Testing? Testing the application or software again and again manually to find defects in the software according to customer requirements. Manual Testing is a process of finding out the defects or bugs in a software program. In this method the tester plays an important role of end user and verifies that all the features of the application are working correctly. Here the tester will manually executes test cases without using any automation tools. Without manual testing, the testing process will not be complete and there is a chance of critical functional issues if we less bothered about the manual testing process. What are Drawbacks of Manual Testing? * Manual Testing requires more time or more resources, some times both: Covering all areas of the Application requires more Tests, creating all possible Test cases, and executing Test cases takes more time * Executing same tests again and again will be time taking process as well as Tedious. * Less Accuracy:  Testers may make mistakes, so we cannot expect more accuracy in Manual Testing * Performance testing is impractical in manual testing. Test Tool is mandatory to conduct performance testing * Manual Test Case scope is very limited. * GUI Objects Size difference and Color combinations etc... are not easy to find in Manual Testing. * Not Suitable for Large scale projects and time bounded projects. * For each and every test execution Human user interaction is mandatory. What is Automation Testing? Process of using a computer program to execute system or user transactions against an IT system. This is typically done by automation tool. Automated testing tools are capable of executing tests, reporting outcomes and comparing results with earlier test runs. Tests carried out with these tools can be run repeatedly, at any time of day. When Best to go for Automation? If the system undergoes cycles of re-testing by regression testing this leads to practically executing several thousand test cases which is not only time consuming but monotonous and leading to errors. So, to solve such problems we can go for automation testing. Automation testing typically used for functional regression testing, performance testing, load testing, network testing and security testing. Advantages of Automation  Automation saves lots of time, especially when it comes to regression testing. In regression testing we need to run all test script associate with the change. this is a risk here that due to time constraints we may not run all tests associates to the change which may result in undiscovered defects. These issues can be overcome by automated tests  Speed: As automated tests are run by tool these are run much faster than human user which adds to the first benefits of saving time  Repeatability: The same tests can be re-run in exactly the same manner eliminating the risk of human errors such as tester  Programmable: Tester can program sophisticated tests that brings hidden  Reusable: Tests can be reused on different versions of software information.  Increase Coverage: You can build a suite of tests that covers every feature in your application.  Cost reduction: As the number of resources for regression test are reduced.  Good ROI(Return on investment). What are the Automation tools present in Market?  Test Complete  QTP  SoapUI  Selenium  RFT  Visual studio test professional  Test Drive etc..... In these more popular one is Selenium and it is an open source tool. What is Selenium? Selenium is a portable software-testing framework for web applications. Testing done using Selenium tool is usually referred as Selenium Testing and its an API for web browsers…. Selenium is a set of different software tools each with a different approach to supporting test automation. There are four tools in Selenium 1.Selenium-IDE 2.Selenium-RC 3.Selenium Webdriver 4.Selenium Grid Features of Selenium • Open source tool is that performs a very specific task, in which the source code is openly published for use and modification from its original design, free of charge. • Frequent regression testing. • Rapid feedback to developers. • Virtually unlimited iterations of test case execution. • Support for Agile and extreme development methodologies. • Disciplined documentation of test cases. • Customized defect reporting. • Finding defects missed by manual testing. Selenium has four Components • Selenium-IDE • Selenium RC • Selenium Webdriver • Selenium Grid Selenium Supported Languages • Java • C# • PHP • Python • Perl • Ruby
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C# tips and tricks 4 - Difference between var and dynamic keywords - var keyword vs dynamic keyword
 
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C# tips and tricks - Free video tutorials var keyword: Type of variable declared is decided at compile time. Errors are caught at compile time. Visual Studio shows intellisense since the type of variable assigned is known to compiler. dynamic keyword: Type of variable declared is decided at run time. Errors are caught at run time. Visual Studio does not show intellisense since the type of variable assigned is unknown to compiler. ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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Manual testing 1 - What is testing?why testing is required? Advantages & drawbacks of manual testing
 
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Manual testing introduction. What is Manual Testing? Testing software again and again manually to find the defects in software according to customer requirements. Manual testing is the only one option during the initial stage of the application. Manual testing is preferable for products with engineered user experience and GUIs with constant updates. Any bugs that may pop up when a user handles the program in a certain way are more likely to be caught with manual testing. What are the Qualities of good tester? He should always have attitude of break an application Means he should test the application both in positive and negative ways. He should see the application or product in negative point of view He should be more creative to derive so many scenario’s that he can apply over that application He should also see the product or application in the customer point of view While testing tester have to behave like an end user…. He should always give prominence for quality of the product or application. Test engineer should require an ability to communicate with both technical (developers) and non-technical (customers, management) people is very useful. Judgment skills are needed to assess high-risk areas of an application on which to focus testing efforts when time is limited Why testing is required? Software Testing is necessary because we all make mistakes. Some of those mistakes are unimportant, but some of them are expensive or dangerous. We need to check everything and anything we produce because things can always go wrong – humans make mistakes all the time. Testing is required to point out all errors and defects created by developers while developing an application. Testing is required to ensure customers reliability and satisfaction. Here as a tester we need to concentrate on customer satisfaction by delivering a right product at right time… Testing is required to produce a quality product which meets customer’s expectation or exceeds customer expectation. Testing is required to gain the confidence of customers. Once you gain the confidence you will be getting more business in coming days. Testing is required to ensure the better performance of the application. Application should respond fast to users. If it is taking time to respond, user will go for second option and you will be losing the business. Testing is required to stay in business. Testing is required to make sure that quality product developed is producing accurate and consistent results. What are the advantages of manual testing? Manual testing will be useful only when the test case needs to run once or twice. It will take less cost than automation. Easy to learn for new people who are entered into testing. Manual QA testing can be used in both small and big projects. Manual is more reliable then automated (in many case Automated not cover all cases) Manual testing doesn’t require any specific knowledge like any scripting language, technical knowledge. Manual Testing which is performed by humans can find many such defects which can never be found using Automation testing. What are Drawbacks of Manual Testing? Manual Testing requires more time or more resources, sometimes both: Covering all areas of the Application requires more Tests, creating all possible Test cases, and executing Test cases takes more time Executing same tests again and again will be time taking process as well as Tedious. Less Accuracy: Testers may make mistakes, so we cannot expect more accuracy in Manual Testing Performance testing is impractical in manual testing. Testing Tool is mandatory to conduct performance testing Manual Test Case scope is very limited. GUI Objects Size difference and Color combinations etc... are not easy to find in Manual Testing. Not Suitable for Large scale projects and time bounded projects. For each and every test execution Human user interaction is mandatory.
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C# Beginner to advanced - Lesson 59 - Predicate delegate
 
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Predicate delegate: It represents a method that contains a set of criteria and checks whether the passed parameter meets those criteria or not. A predicate delegate methods must take one input parameter and it then returns a boolean value - true or false. ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays ArrayList Strings String Builder Structures Enums Functions Classes Inheritance Polymorphism Properties Indexers Events Nested Classes Delegates Anonymous methods Labda expressions Abstract classes Exception Handling Linq Interfaces Extension methods Anonymous types Generics Collections Garbage Collection Reflection Attributes Input and output statements Type casting Partial Methods Partial Classes Boxing and Unboxing Var vs Dynamic vs Object using Static. Auto property initializer. Dictionary Initializer. nameof Expression. New way for Exception filters. await in catch and finally block. Null – Conditional Operator. Expression – Bodied Methods Easily format strings – String interpolation Parameterless constructors in structs. Creating a custom exceptions class.
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C# Beginner to advanced - Lesson 63 - Object Initializer
 
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Object Initializer: Object initializers allow you to assign values to the fields or properties at the time of creating an object without invoking a constructor. ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays ArrayList Strings String Builder Structures Enums Functions Classes Inheritance Polymorphism Properties Indexers Events Nested Classes Delegates Anonymous methods Labda expressions Abstract classes Exception Handling Linq Interfaces Extension methods Anonymous types Generics Collections Garbage Collection Reflection Attributes Input and output statements Type casting Partial Methods Partial Classes Boxing and Unboxing Var vs Dynamic vs Object using Static. Auto property initializer. Dictionary Initializer. nameof Expression. New way for Exception filters. await in catch and finally block. Null – Conditional Operator. Expression – Bodied Methods Easily format strings – String interpolation Parameterless constructors in structs. Creating a custom exceptions class.
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HTML for Beginners - Lesson 1 - Structure of an HTML page
 
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HTML BASIC TAGS HTML Head Body Title H1 P
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C# Beginner to advanced - Lesson 62 - What is Dynamic type? How dynamic types are used in c#?
 
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Dynamic type in C# : C# 4.0 (.NET 4.5) introduced a new type that avoids compile time type checking – Dynamic type. A dynamic type escapes type checking at compile time instead, it resolves type at run time. A dynamic type can be defined using the dynamic keyword. dynamic dynamicVariable = 1; The compiler compiles dynamic types into object types in most cases. The above statement would be compiled as: object dynamicVariable = 1; static void Main(string[] args) { dynamic dynamicVariable = 100; Console.WriteLine("Dynamic variable value: {0}, Type: {1}",dynamicVariable, dynamicVariable.GetType().ToString()); dynamicVariable = "Hello World!!"; Console.WriteLine("Dynamic variable value: {0}, Type: {1}", dynamicVariable, dynamicVariable.GetType().ToString()); dynamicVariable = true; Console.WriteLine("Dynamic variable value: {0}, Type: {1}", dynamicVariable, dynamicVariable.GetType().ToString()); dynamicVariable = DateTime.Now; Console.WriteLine("Dynamic variable value: {0}, Type: {1}", dynamicVariable, dynamicVariable.GetType().ToString()); } Key Features of dynamic type : If you assign class object to the dynamic type then the compiler would not check for correct methods and properties name of a dynamic type that holds the custom class object. A method can have dynamic type parameters so that it can accept any type of parameter at run time. ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays ArrayList Strings String Builder Structures Enums Functions Classes Inheritance Polymorphism Properties Indexers Events Nested Classes Delegates Anonymous methods Labda expressions Abstract classes Exception Handling Linq Interfaces Extension methods Anonymous types Generics Collections Garbage Collection Reflection Attributes Input and output statements Type casting Partial Methods Partial Classes Boxing and Unboxing Var vs Dynamic vs Object using Static. Auto property initializer. Dictionary Initializer. nameof Expression. New way for Exception filters. await in catch and finally block. Null – Conditional Operator. Expression – Bodied Methods Easily format strings – String interpolation Parameterless constructors in structs. Creating a custom exceptions class.
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C# Beginner to advanced - Lesson 60 - Stream reader and stream writer (System.IO)
 
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Stream reader and stream writer: C# includes following standard IO (Input/Output) classes to read/write from different sources like a file, memory, network, isolated storage, etc. Stream:  System.IO.Stream is an abstract class that provides standard methods to transfer bytes (read, write, etc.) to the source. Classes that need to read/write bytes from a particular source must implement the Stream class. The following classes inherits Stream class to provide functionality to Read/Write bytes from a particular source: FileStream: reads or writes bytes from/to a physical file whether it is a .txt, .exe, .jpg or any other file. FileStream is derived from the Stream class. MemoryStream: MemoryStream reads or writes bytes that are stored in memory. BufferedStream: BufferedStream reads or writes bytes from other Streams to improve the performance of certain I/O operations. NetworkStream: NetworkStream reads or writes bytes from a network socket. PipeStream: PipeStream reads or writes bytes from different processes. CryptoStream: CryptoStream is for linking data streams to cryptographic transformations. Readers and Writers: StreamReader: StreamReader is a helper class for reading characters from a Stream by converting bytes into characters using an encoded value. It can be used to read strings (characters) from different Streams like FileStream, MemoryStream, etc. StreamWriter: StreamWriter is a helper class for writing a string to a Stream by converting characters into bytes. It can be used to write strings to different Streams such as FileStream, MemoryStream, etc. BinaryReader: BinaryReader is a helper class for reading primitive datatype from bytes. BinaryWriter: BinaryWriter writes primitive types in binary. ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays ArrayList Strings String Builder Structures Enums Functions Classes Inheritance Polymorphism Properties Indexers Events Nested Classes Delegates Anonymous methods Labda expressions Abstract classes Exception Handling Linq Interfaces Extension methods Anonymous types Generics Collections Garbage Collection Reflection Attributes Input and output statements Type casting Partial Methods Partial Classes Boxing and Unboxing Var vs Dynamic vs Object using Static. Auto property initializer. Dictionary Initializer. nameof Expression. New way for Exception filters. await in catch and finally block. Null – Conditional Operator. Expression – Bodied Methods Easily format strings – String interpolation Parameterless constructors in structs. Creating a custom exceptions class.
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Manual testing 6 - What is Hybrid software development life cycle model? What is Derived sdlc model?
 
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What is Hybrid model Hybrid model of spiral and prototype model Applications of Hybrid model of spiral and prototype model Hybrid model of V&V and prototype model Applications of Hybrid model of V&V and prototype model What is Derived Model HYBRID MODEL: It combines 2 or more models and modify them as per business requirements. Hybrid model of Spiral and Prototype model Procedure  BA is going to collect the requirements of one Module.  Content developer will develop the prototype.  Test engineer will test the prototype  Customer will review the prototype  Customer will approve the prototype  Then design of that prototype for that module.  After design, coding and then testing.  Deploy to the customer.  This process continues for all the modules present in the application. We go for this model when, 1) Whenever there is dependency, we go for this hybrid model 2) When the customer gives requirement in stages, we develop the product in stages using this hybrid model. 3) When the customer is new to the s/w domain 4) When developers are new to the domain 5) When customer is not clear about his own requirements Hybrid model of V&V and Prototype model Procedure 1) In the first stage, the client sends the CRS both to developers and testers. The developers translate the CRS to the SRS. The testers do the following tests on CRS, • Review CRS a. conflicts in the requirements b. missing requirements c. wrong requirements • Write Acceptance Test plan • Write Acceptance Test cases The testing team reviews the CRS and identifies mistakes and defects and sends it to the development team for correcting the bugs. The development updates the CRS and continues developing SRS simultaneously and developer will be ready with prototype. 2) In the next stage, the SRS is sent to the testing team for review and the developers start building the HLD of the product. The testers do the following tests on SRS, • Test engineer will test the prototype • If there is no defect he will give to customer review. • If customer satisfied with prototype then customer will approve the prototype • Review SRS against CRS a. Every CRS is converted to SRS b. CRS not converted properly to SRS • Write System Test plan • Write System Test case The testing team reviews every detail of the SRS if the CRS has been converted properly to SRS. 3) In the next stage, the developers start building the LLD of the product. The testers do the following tests on HLD, • Review HLD • Write Integration test plan • Write Integration test case 4) In the next stage, the developers start with the coding of the product. The testing team carries out the following tasks, • Review LLD • Write Functional test plan • Write Functional Test case After coding, the developers themselves carry out unit testing or also known as white box testing. Here the developers check each and every line of code and if the code is correct. After white-box testing, the s/w product is sent to the testing team which tests the s/w product and carries out functional testing, integration testing, system testing and acceptance testing and finally delivers the product to the client. We go for this model when, 1) Testing starts from early stages of product development which avoids downward flow of defects, thus reducing re-work. 2) When customer is expecting a very high quality product within stipulated time frame because every stage is tested and developers and testing team work in parallel. 3) When client and developers are both new to the domain 4) When customer is not clear about his own requirements In this hybrid model, the testing team is involved in testing the prototype. Derived Model. Here we take a basic model and change it according to company standards. Possible interview questions Explain hybrid model of spiral and prototype model with diagram For what kind of project we go for Hybrid model of spiral and prototype model Explain hybrid model of V&V and porotype model with diagram For what kind of project we go for Hybrid model of V&V and prototype model What is Derived model
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C# tips and tricks 21 - Extracting text from an image using Tesseract OCR library for C# (CSharp)
 
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How to extract text from an images like jpg, png, bmp? Like our facebook page https://www.facebook.com/ankprotraining/ Code is available below... What is OCR? OCR (Optical character recognition) is the recognition of printed or written text characters by a computer. This involves photo scanning of the text character-by-character, analysis of the scanned-in image, and then translation of the character image into character codes, such as ASCII, commonly used in data processing. Optical Character Recognition, or OCR, is a technology that enables you to convert different types of documents, such as scanned paper documents, PDF files or images captured by a digital camera into editable and searchable data. What is Tesseract Tesseract is an optical character recognition engine for various operating systems. Tesseract is an OCR engine with support for Unicode and the ability to recognize more than 100 languages out of the box. It can be trained to recognize other languages. Tesseract Data Files Sets of trained data files for tesseract is called tesseract data files 1. What is OCR? 2. What is Tesseract? 3. What is Tesseract Data File? Steps for coding 1. Add Tesseract Nuget pacakage of version 3.0.2.0 2. Download data files for 3.0.2.0 version from Tesseract OCR official GitHub Project https://github.com/tesseract-ocr/tesseract/wiki/Data-Files 3. Search for "Data Files for Version 3.02" 4. Look for language for english and click on the link next to it. 5. unzip the downloaded file using unzip utilities like 7Zip 6. Copy TessData to project and select all files inside the Tessdata folder 7. Right click on selected files and select properties 8. Select copy always in the Copy to output directory option. 9. Create a image using utility like paint, save the file and copy to project. 10. Right click on the file and select properties and select copy always in the Copy to output directory option. 11. Add System.Drawing namespace to the project from references. By using a AForge library we can achieve better accuracy. Code : using System; using System.Collections.Generic; using System.Drawing; using System.Linq; using System.Text; using System.Threading.Tasks; using Tesseract; namespace OCRTesseractDemo { class Program { static void Main(string[] args) { Bitmap img = new Bitmap("Test1.jpg"); TesseractEngine engine = new TesseractEngine("./tessdata", "eng", EngineMode.Default); Page page = engine.Process(img, PageSegMode.Auto); string result = page.GetText(); Console.WriteLine(result); } } }
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C# tips and tricks 7 - Converting  JSON data to C# Object (jsonplaceholder.typicode and json2csharp)
 
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Converting JSON data to C# Object: FREE C# TUTORIALS Newtonsoft.Json : It is a popular high-performance JSON framework for .NET DownloadString("http://abc.com"): Downloads the requested resource as a String. The resource to download is specified as a String containing the URL. Serialization : Serialization is the process of converting an object into a stream of bytes in order to store the object or transmit it to memory, a database, or a file. Its main purpose is to save the state of an object in order to be able to recreate it when needed. The reverse process is called deserialization. ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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C# tips and tricks 8 - How to read the values from app.config file (ConfigurationManager class)
 
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How to read the values from app.config file : FREE C# TUTORIALS System.Configuration: This namespace provides classes and interfaces that allow you to programmatically access .NET Framework configuration settings and handle errors in configuration files (.config files). ConfigurationManager : This class Provides access to configuration files for client applications. This class cannot be inherited. AppSettings : This property gets the AppSettingsSection data for the current application's default configuration. ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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Manual testing 17 - What is Compatibility testing? What are Common Compatibility Testing Defects?
 
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what is Compatibility testing? • It is basically the testing of the application or the product built with the computing environment. • It tests whether the application or the software product built is compatible with the hardware, operating system, database or other system software or not. • Compatibility test should always perform on real environment instead of virtual environment. • Test the compatibility of application with different browsers and operating systems to guarantee 100% coverage. Types of compatibility testing: • Browser compatibility testing • Hardware • Networks • Mobile Devices • Operating System • Versions • Browser compatibility testing it is very popular in compatibility testing. It is to check the compatibility of the software application on different browsers like Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari, and Opera etc. • Hardware it is to check the application/ software compatibility with the different hardware configurations. • Network it is to check the application in different network like 3G, WIFI etc. • Mobile Devices it is to check if the application is compatible with the mobile devices and their platforms like android, iOS, windows etc. • Operating Systems it is to check if application is compatible with different Operating Systems like Windows, Linux, Mac etc. • Versions It is important to test the software applications in different versions of the software. There are two different types of version inspection. – Backward Compatibility Testing– Testing of the application or software in old or previous versions. It is also known as downward compatible. – Forward Compatibility Testing-Testing of the application or software in new or upcoming versions. It is also known as forward compatible Why we perform Compatibility testing? Compatibility testing is to check the application working in same way for all platforms. Usually dev team and testing team test the application in the single platform. But the once application released in the production, customer may test our product in different platform and they may find bugs in the application which is not worthy in terms of quality. To reduce such issues and not to upset your customers it is important to test the application in all platforms. When should perform Compatibility testing? When build gets stable enough to test then we should perform compatibility testing. How to perform Compatibility testing? 1. Test the application in same browsers but in different versions.. 2. Test the application in different browsers but in different versions Common Compatibility testing defects • Changes in UI ( look and feel) • Change in font size • Alignment related issues • Change in CSS style and color • Scroll bar related issues • Content or label overlapping • Broken tables or Frames Possible Interview Questions on compatibility testing What is Compatibility Testing. What are the types of Compatibility Testing. Why should perform Compatibility Testing When should perform Compatibility Testing How to perform Compatibility Testing Which are all the Compatibility Testing defects
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C# tips and tricks 9 - How to read XML file using C# | Xml Document | Xml Text Reader | System.Xml
 
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System.Xml : This namespace provides standards-based support for processing XML. XmlTextReader : This class provides methods to access to XML data. NodeType : This attribute gets the type of the current node. Read( ) : Reads the next node from the stream. ReadElementString( ) : Reads a text-only element. XmlDocument : Represents an XML document. You can use this class to load, validate, edit, add, and position XML in a document. ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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Manual testing 14 - What is smoke testing? What is Sanity testing? What's Build Verification Testing
 
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Smoke Testing. Why we do Smoke Testing. When to do Smoke Testing. Types of Smoke Testing Difference between Smoke testing, Sanity testing and Dry Run SMOKE TESTING or SANITY TESTING or DRY RUN or SKIM TESTING or BUILD VERIFICATION TESTING Testing the basic or critical features of an application before doing thorough testing or rigorous testing is called as smoke testing. It is also called Build Verification Testing – because we check whether the build is broken or not. Whenever a new build comes in, we always start with smoke testing, because for every new build – there might be some changes which might have broken a major feature ( fixing the bug or adding a new feature could have affected a major portion of the original software). In smoke testing, we do only positive testing – i.e., we enter only valid data and not invalid data. Why we do Smoke testing? • Just to ensure that product is testable • Do smoke testing in the beginning – catch bugs in basic features – send it to development team so that development team will have sufficient time to fix it. • Just to ensure that product is installed properly. When We Do Smoke Testing • As soon as we get the build . • Customer should do smoke testing to check whether files are copied properly or not. • Build engineer will do smoke testing to check whether software is installed properly in testing server and production server. • Developer will do smoke testing after doing WBT. Types of Smoke Testing 1.Formal Testing 2.Informal Testing . Difference between Smoke Testing and Sanity Testing and Dry Run Sanity Testing • Narrow and deep testing. Unscripted • Take some very very important features and do deep testing • It is manually done Smoke Testing • Scripted. Shallow and wide testing • Take all important features and do high-level testing • Build comes – write automation scripts and run the script. Thus test done automatically. Dry Run - A dry run is a testing process where the effects of a possible failure are intentionally mitigated. For example, an aerospace company may conduct a "dry run" of a takeoff using a new aircraft on a runway before the first test flight. Possible Interview Questions smoke testing What is Smoke Testing Why we do Smoke Testing When to do Smoke Testing What are the types of Smoke Testing Difference between Smoke testing, Sanity testing and Dry Run
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Manual testing 21 - What is Usability testing? How to do usability testing? Why usability testing?
 
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Agenda : Usability Testing. Benefits of Usability Testing. Components of Usability Testing Why we do Usability Testing How to check application is user friendly or not How to do Usability Testing When we do Usability Testing Possible interview questions on Usability testing What is Usability Testing? Usability testing, a non-functional testing technique that used to check of how easily the software can be used by end users. It is done by user point view. On the Web page the usability is a most important and required condition for survival. Benefits of Usability Testing • We will come to know how end user can complete specified actions successfully. • Recognize changes required to improve end user satisfaction. • Identify how much time required to complete the task. • Identify how end user satisfied with our product. • Due to satisfied end user we can improve the business. Usability Testing includes five components 1. Efficiency: How fast an end user can accomplish the task. 2. Errors: How many mistakes do end users make, how severe are these mistakes and how easily can end user recover from the mistakes? 3. Satisfaction: How much does the end user like using the application? 4. Learnability: End user can learn how to use the application by using it frequently. 5. Memorability: When end users return to the home page after a sometime of not using it, does the user remember enough to use it effectively the next time, or does the user have to start over again learning everything? Why we do Usability testing • The goal of usability testing is to identify any usability problems. • User behavior can change depending upon the age, experience and interest of a user. • Usability testing assures that time spent in design and development is not time wasted. • One advantage of performing usability testing on a project is that it can often result in savings of time and money. Based on some criteria s we can tell the application is user friendly or not • Easy to understand • Easy to access • Simple language should be used • Look and feel should be good. • Proper help messages should be given in the application. • If user do the mistakes while using the application proper error message should be displayed. How to do Usability Testing 1.All the important features or frequently used features should be displayed in the left bar or top navigation bar. 2.All the important features should be accessible to the user just by one or two clicks. 3.Every operating system has got its own GUI standards and these standards should not be changed until unless there is a valid reason. 4.All text fields, test area fields, button, dropdown, link, popups should be displayed according to testing standards. 5.Suppose if you are in 10th page of an application user should be able to go back to previous page just by one or 2 clicks When we will do Usability Testing • Usability testing is most often done during the Discovery phase of a project, when the design team is researching a company’s current site, learning about their goals and business needs, and finding out about any issues that need to be addressed. • Performing usability testing at the end of the Development phase of the project, before the new website is deployed, can help developers verify that the application issues have been addressed and that the redesigned application will meet the users’ needs. Possible interview questions on Usability Testing. What Usability Testing? What are the benefits of Usability Testing? Which are the components of Usability Testing? Why we do Usability Testing? How to check application is user friendly or not? How to do Usability Testing? When we do Usability Testing? ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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Data Structures using C Part 4 - Stack Algorithm for infix to postfix | Convert infix to postfix
 
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Algorithm : infix to postfix Start Scan Q from left to right and repeat steps 3 to 6 for each character of Q until the Stack is empty. If c == operand, then add it to P. If c == ‘( ‘ then push it onto Stack. if c == operator, then Repeatedly POP operators from stack and add to P whose precedence is same as or the higher than the precedence of scanned operator. And PUSH the scanned operator to Stack. if c == ‘ )’ then Repeatedly POP each operator from the Stack and add to P until a left parenthesis is found. Remove the left parenthesis from the Stack. Stop Convert infix to postfix Q : ( A + B ) / ( C - D ) P : AB + CD - / Q : ( ( A – ( B + C ) ) * D ) / ( E + F ) P : A B C + - D * E A + / ( A + B ) / ( C - D ) ( ( A – ( B + C ) ) * D ) / ( E + F ) C program to convert an INFIX exp. to POSTFIX form ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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Manual testing 19 - What is Performance testing? What are the types of Performance testing?
 
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What is Performance Testing Performance Testing. Why to do Performance Testing Types of Performance Testing. Performance Testing Tools Common Performance Problems Possible interview questions • Testing the stability and response time of an application by applying load. • It is Non-functional Testing. • Performance testing measures the quality attributes of the system. Why we do Performance Testing • It is done to provide information about the product like speed, stability etc. • It is done to reveal what are the improvements have to be made on the product before it releases. • Without Performance Testing product will suffer from some problems like running slow when several users use it simultaneously, inconsistencies across different operating systems. Types of Performance Testing 1.Load Testing: 2.Stress Testing: 3.Scalability Testing: 4.Volume Testing: 5.Soak Testing: Performance Testing Tools: Apache JMeter: HP Performance Tester: Rational Performance Tester NeoLoad tool: Silk Performer: WebLOA OpenSTA WAPT LoadImpact Loadster Httperf QEngine (ManageEngine) Testing Anywhere CloudTest Common Performance Problems Poor response time Takes more time to load Bottlenecking Poor scalability Database issues. Disk usage Operating System limitations Poor network configuration Memory utilization CPU utilization Insufficient hardware resources ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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Manual testing 7 - What is Agile model in software development life cycle and agile methodologies
 
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What is Agile Model in sdlc? It is an incremental approach wherein requirements keeps on changing as a company we will be flexible enough to take up all the requirement changes, develop the changes and test the changes and give a quality software to the customer with in short period of time. Goal of agile is customer satisfaction through quick delivery of working piece of software. Principles of Agile Model • Customer can change requirement at any point of development stage. • It is simple model to adopt. • There will be good communication between customer, developers, test engineers and BA. • Highest priority is Customer satisfaction. • Short release Agile testing methodologies 1. Scrum Methodology: It is a process in agile methodology which is a combination of Iterative model and incremental model. 2. Extreme programming: It is a process in agile methodology which is intended to improve software quality and responsiveness to changing customer requirements. 3. Feature driven Development(FDD): It is a structured process to design and code software systems and is designed to scale from small to large teams. FDD is a model-driven and short-iteration process 4. Crystal clear: The Crystal methodology is one of the most lightweight, adaptable approaches to software development. Crystal is actually comprised of a family of agile methodologies such as Crystal Clear, where unique characteristics are driven by several factors such as team size, system criticality, and project priorities. 5. Lean and Kanban software development: This is a method to manage and improve work across human systems. This approach aims to manage work by balancing the demands with available capacity, and improving the handling of system level bottlenecks. 6. Adaptive software development method(ASDM): Adaptive Software Development practices provide ability to accommodate change and are adaptable in turbulent environments with products evolving with little planning and learning. 7. Dynamic software development method(DSDM): DSDM methodology has matured to provide a comprehensive foundation for planning, managing, executing, and scaling agile process and iterative software development projects.. SCRUM METHODOLOGY SCRUM is a process in agile methodology which is a combination of Iterative model and incremental model. Release It is combination of sprint Epic Complete set of requirements is called Epic. It consists of features or modules or functionalities. Stories Features or modules or functionalities are called as Stories or user stories. Story Points It is rough estimation given by developers and test engineers to develop and test every individual story. Swag It is rough estimation given by developers and test engineers to develop and test every individual story in the form of hours. Sprint It is the actual time spent by developers and test engineers to develop and test one or more stories. Sprint planning • It is meeting conducted by scrum master on the first day of every sprint. • BA, developer, test engineers, Scrum master and project manager will be the part of this meeting. Scrum Master Scrum master is a person who is responsible for delivery of software to the customer within a planned period of time. Scrum master will track each and every activity done by BA, developers, test engineers. He will be creating stories and tasks for stories and assign those tasks to by BA, developers, test engineers. Scrum Meeting It is the meeting conducted by scrum master as daily basis. It is also called as Daily stand-up meeting. In this meeting we discuss about 1. What you did yesterday? 2. What you have planned for today? 3. Are there any obstacles? Sprint Retrospective Meeting • The retrospective can be also called "lessons learned" meeting. • The team reflects on how everything went and then decides what changes they want to make in the next iteration. • It is the meeting conducted by scrum master on the last day of every sprint. • In this meet we discuss about 1.What went well? 2.What didn’t go well? 3.What are the action plans? Bug Triage Meeting • It is meeting conducted by test engineer or BA a week or two weeks before the release or sprint. • In this meeting test engineer will list all the open and pending bugs. Product Backlog Grooming • It is meeting conducted by test engineer or BA a week or two weeks before the release or sprint. • In this meeting test engineer will list all the pending stories. Bug Bucket • Bug bucket is story or epic created by scrum master in the project management tool. Chickens • Chickens are the set of people who are not committed to the project. • These people will be committed in the project. Pigs • Pigs are the set of people who are committed to project. • These people will be involving in the project. Burn Down Chart Burn-up chart Advantages of Agile Model Disadvantages of Agile Model Agile Interview Questions ankpro manual
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Manual testing 3 - What is spiral SDLC model? What are advantages and disadvantages of spiral model?
 
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SPIRAL MODEL Spiral model is a step by step procedure to develop new software. Spiral model has four phases: 1. Requirement collection 2. Designing 3. Coding 4. Testing Ra – requirement analysis of module A. Da – design of module A. Ca – coding of module A. Ta – testing of module A. In Spiral model, the software product is developed in small modules. Let us consider as shown in figure developing an s/w product. Product is built by integrating A, B, C and D. The module A – requirements of the module is collected first and then the module is designed. The coding of module A is done after which it is tested for defects and bugs. The module B – once module A has been built, we start the same process for module B. But while testing module B, we test for 3 conditions – a) test module B b) test integration of module B with A c) test module A. The module C – after building module A, B, we start the same process for module C. Here we test for the following conditions – 1) test module c, b, a 2) test for integration of C and B, C and A, A and B. And thus, the cycle continues for different modules. Thus, in the above example, module B can be built only after module A has been built correctly and similarly for module C. For spiral model, the best example that we can consider is the MS-Excel application. The MS-Excel sheet consists of a number of cells that are the components of Excel sheet. Here we have to create the cells first (module A). Then we can do operations on the cells like merge cells into two, split cell into half (module B). Then we can draw graphs on the excel sheet (module C). Requirement Changes Major changes Whenever the customer request for Major Changes in Requirements in a particular module, then we change only that module and do testing of both unit and integration of units. This change in requirements comes up in a separate cycle just to do the changes. Minor changes Whenever the customer request Minor Changes in the Product, then the s/w team makes the minor changes along with the new module to be developed simultaneously in a single cycle. We don’t consider making the minor change in a separate cycle of the spiral model due to time and resource constraints. Stages of requirement CRS: The documents collected by Business analysts during requirement collection stage are known as CRS (Customer Requirement Specification) or BRS (Business Requirement Specification) or BS (Business Specification). In this document, the client explains how their business works or the requirement of the s/w he needs. SRS: The BA gathers CRS from the client and translates it into SRS (Software Requirement Specification). The SRS contains how the software should be developed and is given by the BA to developers. FS: For more detailed explanation of how to go about developing the s/w, the BA/developer builds another document – FS (Functional Specification). FS explains how each and every component should work. Advantages of Spiral Model: - 1) Requirement changes are allowed. 2) After we develop one module of the product, then only we can go on to develop the next module of the product. So, it is called controlled model. 3) Investment done in proper way. 4) Testing is done in every cycle before going next cycle. 5) Customer can see the software for every module. Drawbacks of Spiral Model – Traditional model and thus developers only did testing job as well. Requirement collection and design phases are not tested. Testing starts only after coding. Requirement cannot be changed in between the cycle Every cycle of spiral model looks like waterfall model. Applications of Spiral Model • Whenever there is dependency in building the different modules of the software, then we use Spiral Model. • Whenever the customer gives the requirements in stages
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C# Beginner to advanced - Lesson 11 - Stack and Heap - What is stack memory? | What is heap memory?
 
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Stack memory Heap memory ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays ArrayList Strings String Builder Structures Enums Functions Classes Inheritance Polymorphism Properties Indexers Events Nested Classes Delegates Anonymous methods Labda expressions Abstract classes Exception Handling Linq Interfaces Extension methods Anonymous types Generics Collections Garbage Collection Reflection Attributes Input and output statements Type casting Boxing and Unboxing Var vs Dynamic vs Object
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Manual testing 24 - What is Security testing? What are the types and techniques of security testing?
 
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What is Security testing? Security Testing. Principles of Security Testing. Areas of Security Testing Why we do Security testing Types of Security Testing Techniques of Security Testing Possible interview questions on security testing Security Testing Testing the authentication of an application to check how will the application is secured from unauthorized users is called Security testing. In these days, Security is an important requirement for the organization. Every organization needs to secure the information of the application in order to protect data from financial impact. security testing is the one in which tester has to think of destroying the system while testing it. Principles of security testing. • Confidentiality • Integrity • Authentication: • Authorization • Availability • Non-repudiation On which areas we have to do security testing 1.Network Areas: Security testing is conducted on policies and resources. 2. Client-side application security: This deals with ensuring that the client (browser or any such tool) cannot handled. 3. Server-side application security: This involves making sure that the server code and its technologies are secured. 4. System software security: Here security testing is conducted on operating system, database system, and other software that the application depends on. Why We do Security Testing 1.To avoid loss of customer trust. 2. For securing web applications from unauthorized hackers. 3. Attackers can also cause the destruction and corruption to your data which may affect the popularity and productivity of your product to avoid this we will do Security testing. 4. Sometime the attack is so much critical that we do not come know that your product is under attack or someone is hacking your data to avoid this we will do security testing. 5. To avoid website downtime, time loss and reduce the cost in recovering from damage. Types of Security testing 1. Vulnerability scanning: in this testing, whole system under test is scanned to find out the vulnerable signatures. 2. Penetration testing: an attack from hacker is simulated on the system under test. 3. Ethical hacking: Here system under test is attacked from within to expose all the security issues in the application or software. 4. Risk assessment: the assessment of risk involved with the security of system under test is done and then risks are classified as High, Medium and Low based on certain factors. 5. Security scanning: This scans the whole system under test and finds out the network weaknesses. Then they are studied in detail, analyzed and fixed. 6. Security review: This is the review process for security standards. Whether all the standards are followed and implemented properly are checked through gap analysis and reviews. Security testing techniques. 1.SQL injection 2.Cross site scripting. (XSS) 3.Session expiry. 4.URL manipulation 5.Cross site request for forgery(CSRF) 6.Cookies based testing Possible interview questions on security testing What is Security Testing. What are the Principles of Security Testing. Which are the Areas of Security Testing Why we do Security testing Which are the types of Security Testing Which are the Techniques of Security Testing ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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Manual testing 10 - What is functional testing? What are the types of functional testing
 
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What is functional testing? What are the types of functional testing Functional Testing: Is also called as component testing. Testing each and every component rigorously against requirement specification is called functional testing. In this process, all the components of the application are verified to check if they are working as expected. Components here refers to different objects like • Test Box • Checklist • Dropdowns • Labels • Radio Buttons • Buttons • Links • Labels • Images • Check Boxes Etc... Consider a example: The user want to login into Ankpro Technologies webpage. • He/she goes to browser and types http://www.ankpro.com • Login page gets open. • User enters the valid user name and password, clicks on Login button. • That takes user to Ankpro technologies home page. Now in black box testing, the test engineer tests the s/w against requirements and checks if the s/w is working correctly as per requirements. I.e. checks the software with invalid values. It is usually a word document file. Let us consider that client gives 80pg SRS in MS-WORD format. The test engineer then looks at the requirements and correspondingly checks the s/w. Now the test engineer does all possible tests on the 2 fields. Now, he proceeds with the testing of login page. • When we do testing with invalid data, • We need to verify that correct error message is displayed or not. • If message is displayed properly check the location of message displayed. • Check for proper use of upper case and lower case letters. • Check the text color of error message. He enters the following data in the fields: Username: 1. Enters number in the user name. 2. Enter invalid user name which has not created before. 3. Enters the mail format wrong .(eg: [email protected], xyz gmail.com, [email protected], [email protected] etc) 4. Enter the characters less than 8. 5. Enter the characters greater than 22. Password: 1. Enter invalid password. 2. Enter the characters less than 8. 3. Enter the characters greater than 36 etc. Thus, during testing, we must remember the following points, a) We must always start testing the application with the valid data. In the above example for login page first test with valid username and password. Testing with invalid data should not be done at first, because if the valid data itself is not taken correctly, then we need not have to waste our time checking for the invalid data. b) If the application works for valid data, only then we must start testing for invalid data. c) If the application is not working for 1 of the invalid values, then we can continue testing for all the other invalid values and then submit the test report of all the defects for invalid values. d) In testing, we should not assume or propose requirement. If we have any queries, talk to the one who knows the requirements very well and clarify the queries. e) We must not do over-testing (testing for all possible junk values) or under-testing (testing for only 1 or 2 values). We must only try and do optimize testing (testing for only the necessary values- both invalid and valid data). f) We must do both positive testing (testing for valid data) and negative testing (testing for invalid data). The characteristics of a good requirement are, 1) Unitary (cohesive) – the requirement addresses 1 and only 1 thing 2) Complete – the requirement is fully stated in 1 place with no missing information 3) Consistent – the requirement does not contradict any other requirement and is fully consistent with all authoritative external documentation 4) Non-Conjugated (Atomic) – the requirement is atomic i.e., it does not contain certain conjunctions. Ex – “the postal code field must validate American and Canadian postal codes” should be written as two separate requirements: 1) “The postal code field must validate American Postal codes” and 2) “The postal code field must validate Canadian Postal codes”. 5) Traceable – the requirement meets all or part of a business need as stated by stakeholders and authoritatively documented 6) Current – the requirement has not been made obsolete by the passage of time 7) Unambiguous – the requirement is concisely stated without recourse to technical jargon, acronyms etc. it expresses objective facts, not subjective opinions. It is subjective to one and only one interpretation. 8) Mandatory – the requirement represents a stakeholder defined characteristic the absence of which will result in a deficiency that cannot be Make better. 9) Verifiable – the implementation of the requirement can be determined through one of 4 possible methods – inspection, demonstration, test or analysis.
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C# 6.0 - Part 1 - Auto property initializer
 
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Auto property initializer: We can set the default value of a read-only property, it means a property that only has a {get;} attribute. ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays ArrayList Strings String Builder Structures Enums Functions Classes Inheritance Polymorphism Properties Indexers Events Nested Classes Delegates Anonymous methods Labda expressions Abstract classes Exception Handling Linq Interfaces Extension methods Anonymous types Generics Collections Garbage Collection Reflection Attributes Input and output statements Type casting Partial Methods Partial Classes Boxing and Unboxing Var vs Dynamic vs Object using Static. Auto property initializer. Dictionary Initializer. nameof Expression. New way for Exception filters. await in catch and finally block. Null – Conditional Operator. Expression – Bodied Methods Easily format strings – String interpolation Parameterless constructors in structs. Creating a custom exceptions class.
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C language - Class 2 : Introduction  to  C  programming? What is  C language? History of C language.
 
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Introduction to C programming What is C language ? History of C language. Characteristics and Uses of C. Tokens in C Why Study C language ? C is the Fundamental and Foundation language for the beginners. C++, C#, java, JavaScript and many other languages have incorporated syntaxes and many features from C. Major parts of the Windows, Unix and Linux are still written in C. C is also used for the System level Programming. Device drivers of new devices are always written in C. Lot of Job opportunities for Experts in C programming. What is C ? C is a High level, general purpose structured programming language. Developed by “Dennis Ritchie” at AT & T's Bell Laboratories (USA) in the 1972. C is not designed for specific applications areas. It is to build wide varieties of applications. Well suited for business and scientific applications. History of C ALGOL - BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) - B - C C was invented to write an operating system called UNIX. The language was formalized in 1988 by the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) and So called ANSI C. C programs are normally typed in text editors like notepad or directly in the C compiler. A C program can vary from 3 lines to millions of lines and it should be written into one or more files with extension ".c“ for example: hello.c Characteristics of C C is a Popular Language due to its rich set of Built-in Functions. Programs written in C are efficient and faster, this is due to its variety of data types and powerful operators. C is a portable language, that means C programs written for one computer can be run into another computer without any manipulation. C language is a highly flexible language. Very easy to understand by Users. It can be used for developing system softwares. C is structured programming Language which allows us to divide the program into modules. These modular structure of programming is easy for debugging, testing and maintenance. C has ability to extend itself, means that we can add our own sub programs (functions) to the main C program. Tokens in C C tokens are the basic buildings blocks in C language which are constructed together to write a C program. Each and every smallest individual units in a C program are known as C tokens. void main( ) { int a, b, total ; a = 10 ; b = 20 ; total = 30 ; printf ( “Sum is = %d” , total); } 1. Character Set 2. Constants 3. Key words 4. Operators 5. Variables Character Set : Alphabets :   - Upper case (A-Z) - Lower case (a-z) Alphabets Digits : - 0 to 9 Special Characters :  - ~ ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ + { } [ ] - , . / ? \ | : ; " ' Constants : Numerical Constants : - 8 100 5000 1.27 85.2525 Character constants : - ‘a’ ‘A’ ‘$’ ‘+’ String constants : - “gem” “ACTOR” “Cricket” Keywords int float double long short union signed unsigned const if else auto switch break default do while case for continue extern static struct void typedef enum return sizeof goto char register volatile Operators Unary ++, -- Assignment = Arithmetic + - * / % Logical && || ! Relational lessthan greaterthan lessthan= greaterthan= == != Shorthand += -= *= /= %= Conditional ? : Variables int a, b ; float salary, height ; char name [20] ; ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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C language - Class 3 : Structure of a C program
 
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Structure of a C program : printf, scanf, main, clrscr, comments ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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Data Structures using C Part 2 - Introduction stacks | What is a stack? Why stack data structure?
 
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Introduction stacks data structure in C : ADT - Abstract Data Types : You have already familiar with Basic data types like integers, arrays, strings and so on. To access such data, you have used operations defined in the programming language for the data type. This approach doesn’t always work on large and complex programs in the real world which deal with large amount of data. ADTs are also called as custom data types which define : how the data values are stored. the possible operations that can be carried out on the stored data. It hides the detailed implementation of the data type and provides an interface to manipulate them. For example : stacks, queues, linked lists, graphs, trees etc… Introduction to Stacks Stack is a special type of data structure where elements are inserted from one end and elements are deleted from the same end. The position from where elements are inserted and from where elements are deleted is termed as top of the stack. Thus stack is a homogeneous collection of elements of any one type, arranged linearly with access at one end only. The two basic operations associated with stacks are : Push Pop Stack Program : void push(); void pop(); void display(); int top= -1; // value of top is initialised to -1 int stack[SIZE]; void main() { int choice; while(1) { printf("\n1.Push\n"); printf("\n2.Pop\n"); printf("\n3.Display\n"); printf("\n4.Quit\n"); printf("\nEnter your choice:"); scanf("%d",&choice); switch(choice) { case 1: push(); break; case 2: pop(); break; case 3: display(); break; case 4: exit(1); default:printf("Invalid Choice\n"); } } } void push() { int item; if(top==(SIZE-1)) printf("\nStack Overflow"); else { printf("\nEnter the item to be pushed in stack:"); scanf("%d",&item); top=top+1; stack[top]=item; } } void pop() { if(top==-1) printf("Stack Underflow\n"); else { printf("\nPopped element is : %d\n",stack[top]); top=top-1; } } void display() { int i; if(top== -1) printf("\nStack is empty\n"); else { printf("\nStack elements:\n"); for(i=top;igreaterthan=0;i--) printf("%d\n",stack[i]); } } Applications of Stack ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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C language - Class 5 : Input and Output functions - printf, scanf, getchar, putchar, gets and puts
 
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Input and Output functions : printf( ) - formatted output function scanf( ) - formatted input function getchar( ) - single character input putchar( ) - single character output gets( ) - un-formatted input function puts( ) - un-formatted output function All these functions are defined and contained in the "stdio.h" header file. ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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C# Beginner to advanced - Lesson 45 - Nested classes
 
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Nested Classes : A Nested class is defined within the code block of Another class. It can be instantiated separately to its parent class. It is not instantiated automatically by its parent. Nested class will not have access to the members of the nesting class. public class Outside { public class Inside { } } ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays ArrayList Strings String Builder Structures Enums Functions Classes Inheritance Polymorphism Properties Indexers Events Nested Classes Delegates Anonymous methods Labda expressions Abstract classes Exception Handling Linq Interfaces Extension methods Anonymous types Generics Collections Garbage Collection Reflection Attributes Input and output statements Type casting Partial Methods Partial Classes Boxing and Unboxing Var vs Dynamic vs Object
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C# tips and tricks 2 - Finding the Difference of Date (How to find the difference of two dates?)
 
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How to find the difference of two dates : DateTime Structure: Represents an instant in time, typically expressed as a date and time of day. DateTime ( ) A constructor Initializes a new instance of the DateTime structure to the specified year, month, and day. Learn C#. C# Tutorial. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C# How to use the "DateTime" in C# How to add days and Hours to a DateTime object How to use a "TimeSpan" object to measure the difference between 2 DateTime objects DateTime Structure ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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C# tips and tricks 12 - How to set Conditional  Break point in C# | Visual studio debugging
 
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Breakpoint : A breakpoint is a signal that tells the debugger to temporarily suspend execution of your program at a certain point. When execution is suspended at a breakpoint, your program is said to be in break mode. Entering break mode does not terminate or end the execution of your program. Execution can be resumed (continued) at any time. Conditional Breakpoint : Conditional breakpoint temporarily suspends execution of your program only if a specific condition is satisfied. A conditional breakpoint is created by combining a breakpoint with a logical command. This breakpoint causes a break to occur only if the logical command is satisfied. For ex : Stop a for loop when i == 5 ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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Bootstrap Chapter 4 – Bootstrap Grid Classes
 
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What we learn ? Bootstrap Grid Classes. Bootstrap Grid - Small Devices. Bootstrap Grid - Medium Devices. Bootstrap Grid - Large Devices. Advantages of using Bootstrap Grid Classes. Bootstrap Grid Classes : Bootstrap includes several Grid-Classes to create layouts for different devices like : Mobiles Tablets Desktops Grid classes for a given screen size apply to that screen size and larger unless another declaration overrides it Advantages of Bootstrap Grid Classes : We will be having a complete control over the layout of our website on different screen sizes. ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays ArrayList Strings String Builder Structures Enums Functions Classes Inheritance Polymorphism Properties Indexers Events Nested Classes Delegates Anonymous methods Labda expressions Abstract classes Exception Handling Linq Interfaces Extension methods Anonymous types Generics Collections Garbage Collection Reflection Attributes Input and output statements Type casting Partial Methods Partial Classes Boxing and Unboxing Var vs Dynamic vs Object using Static. Auto property initializer. Dictionary Initializer. nameof Expression. New way for Exception filters. await in catch and finally block. Null – Conditional Operator. Expression – Bodied Methods Easily format strings – String interpolation Parameterless constructors in structs. Creating a custom exceptions class.
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Data Structures using C Part 30 - Depth First Search (DFS) traversal in Graph using c program
 
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Depth First Search traversal in Graph : DFS ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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C# tips and tricks 1 - Finding the  Difference of Time (How to find the difference of time?)
 
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How to find the difference of time : DateTime Structure: Represents an instant in time, typically expressed as a date and time of day. DateTime ( ) A constructor Initializes a new instance of the DateTime structure to the specified year, month, and day. Learn C#. C# Tutorial. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C#. Working with DateTime in C# How to use the "DateTime" class in C# How to add days and Hours to a DateTime object How to use a "TimeSpan" object to measure the difference between 2 DateTime objects DateTime Structure ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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jQuery 1 - Introduction to jQuery - Features of jQuery - What is jQuery
 
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Introduction to jQuery Features of jQuery What is jQuery? Why should we use jQuery? What is jQuery? jQuery is a fast, small and feature-rich JavaScript library included in a single .js file. jQuery makes a web developer's life easy. It provides many built-in functions using which we can accomplish various tasks easily and quickly. According to the definition of jQuery.com : jQuery is a fast, small, and feature-rich JavaScript library. It makes things like HTML document traversal and manipulation, event handling, animation, and Ajax much simpler with an easy-to-use API that works across a multitude of browsers. With a combination of versatility and extensibility, jQuery has changed the way that millions of people write JavaScript. Why should we use jQuery ? jQuery provides following important features: DOM selection. DOM manipulation. Special effects. Events. Ajax. Cross-browser support. DOM selection : jQuery provides Selectors to retrieve DOM element based on different criteria like tag name, id, css class name, attribute name, value, nth child in hierarchy etc. DOM manipulation : You can manipulate DOM elements using various built-in jQuery functions. For example, adding or removing elements, modifying html content, css class etc. Special Effects : You can apply special effects to DOM elements like show or hide elements, fade-in or fade-out of visibility, sliding effect, animation. Events : jQuery library includes functions which are equivalent to DOM events like click, dblclick, mouseenter, mouseleave, blur, keyup, keydown etc. These functions automatically handle cross-browser issues. Ajax : jQuery also includes easy to use AJAX functions to load data from servers without reloading whole page. Cross-browser support: jQuery library automatically handles cross-browser issues, so the user does not have to worry about it. jQuery supports IE 6.0+, FF 2.0+, Safari 3.0+, Chrome and Opera 9.0+. ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net
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Data Structures using C Part 9 - Linked List | What is a linked list? Operations on linked list.
 
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Linked List in C programming language What is a linked list? Operations on linked list. What is a Linked List? Linked list is a linear dynamic data structure. A list having links between every 2 nodes in it. It is a collection of some nodes containing homogeneous elements. Each node in the list contains two parts : 1. Data 2. Pointer to next node Memory representation of Linked list Operations on Linked List Insertion Deletion Traversal Insertion at the end at the beginning after any node Deletion last node first node any node Traversal Defining a Node : struct node { int data; struct node *link; } struct node *START = NULL; Example program on Linked List C code to create a node : struct node * createNode() { struct node *n; n = (struct node*)malloc(sizeof(struct node)); return (n); } C code to insert data into a node : void display(struct node* last) { struct node *t; if(last == NULL) printf("List is Empty"); else { t=last-greaterthan next; do { printf("%d ",t-greaterthan data); t=t-greaterthan next; } while (t!=last-greaterthan next); } } C code to display the list : void display() { struct node *t; if(START==NULL) printf("List is Empty"); else { t=START; while(t!=NULL) { printf("%d",t-greaterthan data); t=t-greaterthan link; } } } C code to delete a node : void deleteNode() { struct node *r; if(START==NULL) printf("List is empty"); else { r=START; START=START-greater than link; free(r); } } Advantages of Linked List : 1. Linked lists are dynamic data structures. i.e., they can grow or shrink during the execution of a program. 2. Linked lists have efficient memory utilization. Here, memory is not pre-allocated. Memory is allocated whenever it is required and it is de-allocated (removed) when it is no longer needed. 3. Insertion and Deletions are easier and efficient. Linked lists provide flexibility in inserting a data item at a specified position and deletion of the data item from the given position. 4. Many complex applications can be easily carried out with linked lists. Disadvantages of Linked List : 1. It consumes more space because every node requires a additional pointer to store address of the next node. 2. Searching a particular element in list is difficult and also time consuming. ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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Manual testing 29 - What is Positive & negative testing? Diff between positive and negative testing
 
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What is Positive and Negative Testing? Positive Testing. Negative Testing. Positive and negative testing techniques. Possible interview questions on positive testing and negative testing This testing activity is carried out to find the defects in the application & improve the quality of software application. Testing of application can be carried out in two different ways, Positive testing and Negative testing. Positive Testing Positive testing is the type of testing that can be performed on the system by providing the valid data as input. It checks whether an application behaves as expected with positive inputs. This test is done to check the application that does what it is supposed to do. The main intention of this testing is to check whether software application not showing error for valid data. Such testing is to be carried out keeping positive point of view & only execute the positive scenario. Negative Testing Negative Testing is a type of testing that can be performed on the system by providing invalid data as input. It checks whether an application behaves as expected with the negative inputs. This is to test the application does not do anything that it is not supposed to do so. The main intention of this testing is to check whether software application not showing error when supposed to & showing error when not supposed to. Such testing is to be carried out keeping negative point of view & only execute the test cases for only invalid set of input data. Testing Technique used for Positive and Negative Testing: Following techniques are used for Positive and negative validation of testing is: • Boundary Value Analysis • Equivalence Partitioning Boundary Value Analysis For the most inputs, errors are observed in the extreme ends of the input values, so these extreme values like start/end or lower/upper values are called Boundary values and analysis of these Boundary values is called Boundary value analysis. Boundary value analysis is another black box test design technique and it is used to find the errors at boundaries of input data rather than finding those errors in the center of input. If input is a range of values between A – B, then design test case for A, A+1, A-1 and B, B+1, B – 1. Equivalence partitioning (EP) Equivalence partitioning (EP) is a black box testing technique. This technique is very common and mostly used by all the testers informally. Equivalence partitions are also known as equivalence classes. As the name suggests Equivalence partitioning is to divide a set of input data into partitions or classes based on the conditions identified and select one data from each class to create test case. In testing it is not feasible to do exhaustive testing. Hence by using equivalence partitioning technique we can select only one condition from each partition to test application. If one condition works fine then all the conditions within that partition will work the same way and tester does not need to test other conditions. There is no thumb rule that we have to select only one data from each class. If tester is not satisfied with one data, still we can go and choose some more data from class. This technique is used to reduce an infinite number of test cases to a finite number, while ensuring that the selected test cases are still effective test cases which will cover all possible scenarios. If (amount less than 100 or greater than 5000) { Error message } If (amount between 100 & 2000) { Deduct 2% } If (amount greater than 2000) { Deduct 3% } Possible interview questions on positive testing and negative testing What is Positive testing? Explain with example What is Negative testing? Explain with example Explain testing techniques for positive and negative testing What are difference between positive and negative testing ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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Bootstrap Chapter 6 – Bootstrap Nested Rows and Columns
 
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Nested Rows and Columns : Nested rows and columns are supported in Bootstrap: It means rows and columns can be placed inside an existing column. But fundamental principle remains same : The number of columns in the nested row should add up to 12. Bootstrap twitter Bootstrap Bootstrap rows and columns Bootstrap columns Bootstrap rows Bootstrap grid ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays ArrayList Strings String Builder Structures Enums Functions Classes Inheritance Polymorphism Properties Indexers Events Nested Classes Delegates Anonymous methods Labda expressions Abstract classes Exception Handling Linq Interfaces Extension methods Anonymous types Generics Collections Garbage Collection Reflection Attributes Input and output statements Type casting Partial Methods Partial Classes Boxing and Unboxing Var vs Dynamic vs Object using Static. Auto property initializer. Dictionary Initializer. nameof Expression. New way for Exception filters. await in catch and finally block. Null – Conditional Operator. Expression – Bodied Methods Easily format strings – String interpolation Parameterless constructors in structs. Creating a custom exceptions class.
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Data Structures using C Part 28 - Representation of Graphs using c | Adjacency Matrix Adjacency List
 
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Graph : Graph is a non linear data structure which contains a set of points known as nodes (or vertices) and set of links known as edges (or Arcs) which connect the vertices. Representation of Graph : struct Graph { int V; int E; int **Adj; } ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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Manual testing 18 - What is Regression testing? What are the types of Regression testing?
 
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What is Regression Testing: • Regression testing is the process of testing changes to computer programs to make sure that the older programming still works with the new changes. • Testing the unchanged features to make sure that it is not broken because of the changes (changes means – addition, modification, deletion or defect fixing) • Re-execution of same test cases in different builds or releases to make sure that changes (addition, modification, deletion or defect fixing) are not introducing defects in unchanged features. For ex: We have an application where in there are 3 modules in it. Now after some time client comes back saying they want one more module to be incorporated into the existing application. Now team will start developing and testing the new module/enhancement. Once the development and testing of the new feature is done, testing team will plan for regression testing to make sure that the new module (module 1) which is added to the application does not affect the existing functionality. Hence functionality of the existing modules (module1, 2 & 3) are also tested before releasing the application. Types of Regression Testing: 1. Unit Regression testing. 2. Regional Regression testing. 3. Full Regression testing. Unit Regression Testing or Retesting: In this case only the part where changes are done is retested. For ex. For a minor defect fix only retesting the defect would be sufficient. Regional Regression testing: In this case tester will be able to identify the existing areas that are affected due to the new changes in application and hence tester will test only few existing modules as part of regression. Full Regression Testing: This is performed in situations where the enhancements are more and tester cannot identify the existing functionalities that are affected due to these new changes then we go for full Regression testing. Selecting test cases for regression testing It was found from industry data that good number of the defects reported by customers were due to last minute bug fixes creating side effects and hence selecting the test case for regression testing is an art and not that easy. Effective Regression Tests can be done by selecting following test cases - • Test cases which have frequent defects • Functionalities which are more visible to the users • Test cases which verify core features of the product • Test cases of Functionalities which has undergone more and recent changes • All Integration Test Cases • All Complex Test Cases • Boundary value test cases • Sample of Successful test cases • Sample of Failure test cases Disadvantages of doing regression testing manually again and again, • Monotonous job • Efficiency drops down • Test execution time is more • No consistency in test execution Thus, we go for Automation to solve this problem. When we have more cycles of Regression testing – we go for Automation. Difference between Re-testing and Regression Testing. Re-Testing – developer fixes the bug(or makes some changes) and gives the product for testing. We are testing only the fixed bug (or changed areas) i.e, we are testing only the defect fixes. We are re-validating the defect Regression testing – we are testing the fixed (or changed areas) and also testing the other areas to check if they are broken. ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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C# tips and tricks 6 - How to read a webpage using c# (simple web crawling or web scraping)
 
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WebClient : Provides common methods for sending data to and receiving data from a resource identified by a URL. DownloadString("http://abc.com") : Downloads the requested resource as a String. The resource to download is specified as a String containing the URL. ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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Data Structures using C Part 20 - Trees in c language | nonlinear data structure | nodes and edges
 
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Trees : A tree is a nonlinear data structure. A tree is a hierarchical collection of nodes connected by edges. Tree terminology Root node - A Parent node - A, B, C Child node - B, C, D, E, F Siblings - B-C, D-E Leaf node - D, E, F Internal node - A, B, C Path - A-B-D, A-B-E, A-C-F Subtree Levels Height of a tree Degree of a Node Types of Trees Binary Tree Binary search tree AVL tree B Trees B+ Trees Examples ankpro ankpro training Asp.net MVC C# C sharp Bangalore Rajajinagar Selenium Coded UI Mobile automation testing Mobile testing JQuery JavaScript .Net C C++ Components of the .Net framework Hello World Literal Keywords Variable Data types Operators Branching Loops Arrays Strings Structures Enums Functions
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