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Modern Linguistics: A Brief History (feat. KhAnubis) | #100YearsChallenge
 
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I love language. That's why I talked about it for 15 minutes. Watch KhAnubis' video here: https://youtu.be/QC4ABEUvUiI ____________ Thanks a million to Daniel Smith, Tammy Stapleton, Mad Sloth & KhAnubis for your support on Patreon this month! If you enjoy what I do and would like to support me further, you can do so here: http://www.patreon.com/WannabeLinguist ___________ Hello! My name is Emma-Louise and I make videos on linguistics (the study of language). I've always loved words and their connections to everything and I desperately wanted to share that obsession with the rest of the world! ★ Validate My Existence Elsewhere! ★ Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/NotALinguist Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/DarkStarTweedia Tumblr: http://darkstartumbles.tumblr.com Instagram: @darkstarnofilter __________ Further Reading: Basic Terms In Linguistics - http://www-personal.umich.edu/~rqueen/Personal/Linguistic_terms.html Linguistic Glossary - https://www.uni-due.de/ELE/LinguisticGlossary.html The History of Modern Linguistics | Linguistic Society of America - https://www.linguisticsociety.org/resource/history-modern-linguistics Conlang Resources List - http://www2.cmp.uea.ac.uk/~jrk/conlang.html FAQ Pamphlets | Linguistic Society of America - https://www.linguisticsociety.org/lsa-publications/faq-pamphlets Conlangs With Active Speaking Communities - https://conlang.org/lcs_resources.pdf List of Linguistics Journals | Linguist List - http://linguistlist.org/pubs/journals/browse-journals.cfm 2e Congrès International de Linguistes (2nd International Congress of Linguists) - http://www.persee.fr/doc/jsa_0037-9174_1930_num_22_2_1082_t2_0405_0000_2 Reviewed Work: Principles of Phonology by N. S. Trubetzkoy | JSTOR http://www.jstor.org/stable/4206418 Linguistic Society of America (LSA) | Presidents - https://www.linguisticsociety.org/about/who-we-are/presidents How Did (American) Women Linguists Become Women In Linguistics? | Linguistics Society of America - https://www.linguisticsociety.org/sites/default/files/LSA-90%20Women%20slides.pdf 4 Important Female Linguists You Should Know | TELC - https://www.telc.net/en/about-telc/news/detail/4-important-female-linguists-you-should-know.html History of Interlingua - https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Interlingua William Labov: Curriculum Vitae - https://www.ling.upenn.edu/~wlabov/WLVITA.pdf Academic Ignorance & Black Intelligence (William Labov) | The Atlantic - https://www.theatlantic.com/past/docs/issues/95sep/ets/labo.htm A Battle, Not The War: A Look At The Linguistics War - http://wwwling.arts.kuleuven.be/qlvl/prints/Ruette_2014draft_linguistics_war.pdf The World’s Newest Languages | TELC - https://www.telc.net/en/about-telc/news/detail/the-worlds-newest-languages.html European Parliament Resolution on Sign Languages, 1988 - http://www.policy.hu/flora/ressign2.htm Foundation for Endangered Languages “Ogmios” Newsletter, November 2018 - http://www.ogmios.org/ogmios/Ogmios_065.pdf International Gender And Language Association (IGALA) Official Website - https://igalaweb.wixsite.com/igala/about Historical Sociolinguistics Network (HiSoN) Official Website | http://hison.sbg.ac.at Google Translate: How Does The Search Giant’s Multilingual Interpreter Actually Work? | The Independent - https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/google-translate-how-work-foreign-languages-interpreter-app-search-engine-a8406131.html En Grammatik For Folkspraak - http://www.irespa.eu/daan/Taal/fs/folkspraak_151109.pdf Woman-Made Language | Wordpress - https://debuk.wordpress.com/2015/10/18/woman-made-language/ Interview With Suzette Haden Elgin - http://web.archive.org/web/20070612005757/http://www.absolutewrite.com/novels/suzette_haden_elgin.htm “Hidden” Language Found In Remote Indian Tribe | National Geographic - https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/10/101005-lost-language-india-science/ Historical Background | International Cognitive Linguistics Association - https://www.cognitivelinguistics.org/historical-background Research Team Discovers Existence of Hawai’i Sign Language | University of Hawai’i - https://www.hawaii.edu/news/article.php?aId=5600 Walmiki & Malhar: Hidden From Linguists | Hindustan Times - https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/walmiki-and-malhar-2-languages-unknown-to-linguists-discovered-by-hyderabad-university/story-M3l1CUHe25VHPk1U1qvlBO.html Where Do “New” Languages Come From? | Sapiens - https://www.sapiens.org/language/new-languages-discovered/ Unknown Language Discovered in Southeast Asia | Lund University - https://www.lunduniversity.lu.se/article/listen-unknown-language-discovered-in-southeast-asia Move Over Shakespeare: Teen Girls Are The Real Language Disrupters | Quartz - https://qz.com/474671/move-over-shakespeare-teen-girls-are-the-real-language-disruptors/
HIS101 - From IE to OE
 
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This E-Lecture deals with the development from Indo-European to Old English with special emphasis on the grouping of English into the branches of Indo-European. The focus is historical rather than linguistic. However, in order to understand the linguistic principles underlying this development, it is recommended to consult the E-Lecture "Language Reconstruction" first.
[HINDI] Linguistics explained fully.
 
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Views: 23047 Ekta Singh
GEN120 - Universal Grammar - Part I
 
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What is Universal Grammar and what are the central linguistic arguments underlying this influential model of linguistic thought? Prof. Handke seeks to answer these questions using linguistic and non-linguistic examples, but he also discusses the main problems that the current version of UG has to face.
Michael Halliday - Language evolving: Some systemic functional reflections on the history of meaning
 
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Webcast sponsored by the Irving K. Barber Learning Centre, and hosted by the Department of Language and Literacy Education and the Faculty of Education as part of the plenary session at the 37th International Systemic Functional Congress, Halliday poses the evolution of language seems a simple enough concept: it arose in the work of scholars studying the history of linguistic forms (phonology, morphology, some syntax). But a language is a semiotic system; more importantly a semogenic, or meaning-creating, system; and meaning also has a history - a highly complex one. Every language has, in Sapir's term, a "certain cut", its own (constantly evolving) ways of meaning; yet most of its features are shared with other languages. We seek out the history of meaning along various routes: in the history of the form of language, in the history of the people that speak it, in the history of the locale where it is spoken, and in the history of its varied cultural contexts. Consider English and Chinese, as two widely spoken and widely-documented languages. The history of meaning in English includes changes that took place in ancient Greek and in ancient and medieval Latin, even though English is not "descended from" these languages; Chinese has undergone somewhat less upheaval, but the history of Mandarin involved contact with ways of meaning derived from Sanskrit and from Mongolian, both also "unrelated" to Chinese. I think that, to study the history of meaning, we take account of both child language development and the emergence of learned forms of discourse; we maintain a trinocular perspective; and we seek systemic and functional (especially metafunctional) explanations of semiotic patterns in discourse.
TYP102 - Language Reconstruction
 
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This E-Lecture discusses the main principles of language reconstruction. Its main topics are: proto-languages, the comparative method, and cognate comparison. Using many examples from the VLC Language Index, the methods of reconstructing former languages receive vivid support.
Basic Principles of Systemic Functional Linguistics
 
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This video is intended to enriched our knowledge especially English teachers in Indonesia about Systemic Functional Linguistics basic principles. Please leave a like. This video is made possible with support from my lecturer Mr. Sudarsono, M. I. and Freepik.com where I got some awesome vector arts. Thank you for watching.
Views: 3008 Annas R Zulficar
MOR106 - Morphological Analysis (PDE)
 
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This clip explains and exemplifies the principles of morphological analysis using concatenative PDE plural forms an example. After an isolation of the morphs, the method of "preliminary normalization" which goes back to Charles Hockett will be discussed.
Jakobson's Remarks on the Evolution of Russian and the Slavic Languages
 
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Analyzes the methodology of Jakobson's pioneering 1929 book on historical linguistics. Introduces Jakobson's principles of compatible and incompatible features (such as tonal accent, intensity accent, and vowel quantity). The paper then presents the historical implications of incompatible feature coexistence, resulting from phonological change, as exemplified by the various Slavic language zones after the loss of final jer vowels.
Views: 3341 DukeSEELRC
PHY117 - The Great Vowel Shift
 
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This E-Lecture discusses the central principles and stages of the Great Vowel Shift, the chain shift that has influenced the English language until the present day. Using the potential of the ActivBoard, Jürgen Handke, discusses each individual stage of the GVS in detail, produces examples where necessary and includes phonological and more general explanations for this influential sound shift.
Overview of Comparative Linguistics
 
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Overview of Comparative Linguistics
Views: 3167 tesolnet
Fairclough Critical Discourse Analysis
 
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Buy our app and get access to the models. You can place your own content in the model and use it for your assignments. You can use it in your teaching or presentations as well – just remember to tell it’s from flixabout.com. Furthermore, you get to see the full text for the movies. Prize for the App: 2 Euro. Enjoy. https://itunes.apple.com/dk/app/forklar-mig-lige/id1034714497?mt=8 https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.flixabout.flixabout Norman Fairclough (born 1941) is an emeritus Professor of Linguistics at Lancaster University in England. He is one of the founders of critical discourse analysis (CDA) as applied to sociolinguistics. CDA is concerned with how power is exercised through language.
Views: 36509 flixabout.com
50 years of Linguistics at MIT, Lecture 4
 
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Noam Chomsky speaks about the history of linguistics in the 20th century and the role played by the MIT Linguistics department. from "50 Years of Linguistics at MIT: a Scientific Reunion" (December 9-11, 2011) http://ling50.mit.edu Video courtesy of Video Visuals
Views: 53534 MITLINGUISTICS
Stracturalism _Ferdinad De Saussure  Structural Linguistics
 
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In this video, I am talking about Structuralism.
Views: 10322 Linguistics
History of English - OE Morphology
 
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This E-Lecture is part of the BA class "History of English". It discusses the main principles of inflection in OE including a brief mention of the major morphological changes that affected the English language during that period.
50 years of Linguistics at MIT, Lecture 3
 
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Principles and parameters Luigi Rizzi (faculty 1984-1988), Mark Baker (1985), Richard Kayne (1969) Kayne's handout can be downloaded at: http://web.mit.edu/linguistics/handouts50/Kayne.pdf from "50 Years of Linguistics at MIT: a Scientific Reunion" (December 9-11, 2011) http://ling50.mit.edu Video courtesy of Video Visuals
Views: 8641 MITLINGUISTICS
Ferdinand de Saussure and Structural Linguistics
 
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A Short Introduction to the key concepts of Ferdinand de Saussure and Structural Linguistics
Views: 208754 Bella Ross
"New Media Linguistics" by David Peterson from Game of Thrones
 
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0:00 = Mary Ann Mavrinac Introduction 3:03 = Sarah Higley Introduction 6:58 = David Peterson Lecture 54:24 = Q&A April 13, 2016, 6:00 PM - 7:00 PM Hawkins-Carlson Room, Rush Rhees Library University of Rochester Social media has opened up a once solitary creative pursuit—personal language invention—to other inventors, but David J. Peterson has made it his profession. In addition to creating "Dothraki" and "High Valyrian" for the popular TV series Game of Thrones®, he has designed languages for Defiance, The Shannara Chronicles, The 100, and Emerald City. In his lecture, "New Media Linguistics: Developing Languages for Game of Thrones," Peterson will provide a rare glimpse into the fascinating process of language creation for fictional purposes, and will review the cultural, historical, linguistic, and aesthetic aspects that are involved in it. With degrees in linguistics from Berkeley and UC San Diego, Peterson has closely studied the structures of languages world-wide and offers information and advice about creating naturalistic languages as an artform. His 2014 book Living Language Dothraki teaches fans how to speak this nomadic tongue, and in The Art of Language Invention (2015) he offers a rigorous manual of linguistic principles for would-be "conlangers.” Sponsored by the Humanities Project along with the Neilly Lecture Series, River Campus Libraries, and the Sara Nainzadeh Fund.
Views: 7038 UR Humanities Project
TYP104 - Reasons for Language Change
 
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This E-Lecture discusses the main principles of language variation in order to find out in what way they influence the development of English from its beginnings to the present day. The examples used here are from PDE as well as from former stages of the English language..
Linguistic Determinism
 
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Does our language determine how we can think, or can we think about things our language can't frame? In this week's episode, we talk about linguistic determinism: who came up with the hypothesis, what its implications are, and whether a stronger or weaker version best matches the facts. This is Topic #22! This week's tag language: Navajo! Some further info about policies influenced by ideas linking language and thought: http://www.culturalsurvival.org/news/native-american-languages-act-twenty-years-later-has-it-made-difference http://www.anb.org/articles/14/14-00696.html (A biography of early linguist William Dwight Whitney, a strong proponent of such policies) Or if you like Wikipedia, you can try http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistic_relativity Find us on all the social media worlds: Tumblr: thelingspace.tumblr.com Twitter: @TheLingSpace Facebook: www.facebook.com/thelingspace/ And at our website, www.thelingspace.com! Our website also has extra content about this week's topic at www.thelingspace.com/episode-22/ We also have forums to discuss this episode, and linguistics more generally. Looking forward to next week!
Views: 24846 The Ling Space
Semiotics: WTF? Introduction to Saussure, the Signifier and Signified
 
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In this episode of What the Theory, an introduction to semiotics, in particular the approaches of linguists and semioticians Ferdinand de Saussure and Charles Sanders Peirce. Signs, semiotics as well as the concepts of the signifier and signified can seem like somewhat complex terminology when first starting out as can Peirce's related yet distinct notion of the icon, index, symbol triad. In this video essay, I try to help all you out who would like semiotics explained in a clear and concise manner so that you can go away with a slightly clearer understanding of semiotics theory. Further Reading Semiotics: A Graphic Guide by Paul Cobley & Litza Jansz US: https://amzn.to/2SCGokF UK: https://amzn.to/2SB84GX Semiotics: The Basics by Daniel Chandler US: https://amzn.to/2EFeEbJ UK: https://amzn.to/2VpgP8C Mythologies by Roland Barthes US: https://amzn.to/2Eq3rud UK: https://amzn.to/2NBvXNu [The above are affiliate links. I receive a small kickback from anything you buy which, in turn, helps to support the channel.] If you've enjoyed this video then please do check out the rest of my channel where I put out a whole range of videos discussing theatre and playwriting from the perspective of an aspirant and (some might say) emerging playwright and theatre maker as well as reflecting on my experience as a PhD Student. Twitter: @Tom_Nicholas Website: www.tomnicholas.com Thanks for watching!
Views: 73785 Tom Nicholas
PSY101 - Psycholinguistics - An Overview
 
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The hybrid name psycholinguistics reflects a truly interdisciplinary endeavour: Linguists are engaged in the formal description of language, psycholinguists attempt to discover how the underlying structures are used in the processes of speaking, understanding and remembering, and how they are acquired by children. This clip serves as an introdction to the VLC psycholinguistics class and discusses the main goals of the field.
Theories on Language and Linguistics: Saussure, Derrida; Signs, Structures, Lapses and Faults (ENG)
 
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Subject:English Paper: Literary Criticism and Theory
Views: 18886 Vidya-mitra
What is STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS? What does STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS mean?
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ WORK FROM HOME! Looking for WORKERS for simple Internet data entry JOBS. $15-20 per hour. SIGN UP here - http://jobs.theaudiopedia.com ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS? What does STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS mean? STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS meaning - STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS definition - STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Structural linguistics is an approach to linguistics originating from the work of Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure and is part of the overall approach of structuralism. De Saussure's Course in General Linguistics, published posthumously in 1916, stressed examining language as a static system of interconnected units. He is thus known as a father of modern linguistics for bringing about the shift from diachronic (historical) to synchronic (non-historical) analysis, as well as for introducing several basic dimensions of semiotic analysis that are still important today, such as syntagmatic and paradigmatic analysis (or 'associations' as Saussure was still calling them). Structural linguistics involves collecting a corpus of utterances and then attempting to classify all of the elements of the corpus at their different linguistic levels: the phonemes, morphemes, lexical categories, noun phrases, verb phrases, and sentence types. Two of Saussure's key methods were syntagmatic and paradigmatic analysis, which define units syntactically and lexically, respectively, according to their contrast with the other units in the system. The foundation of structural linguistics is a sign, which in turn has two components: a "signified" is an idea or concept, while the "signifier" is a means of expressing the signified. The "sign" is thus the combined association of signifier and signified. Signs can be defined only by being placed in contrast with other signs, which forms the basis of what later became the paradigmatic dimension of semiotic organization (i.e., collections of terms/entities that stand in opposition). This idea contrasted drastically with the idea that signs can be examined in isolation from a language and stressed Saussure's point that linguistics must treat language synchronically. Paradigmatic relations hold among sets of units that (in the early Saussurian renditions) exist in the mind, such as the set distinguished phonologically by variation in their initial sound cat, bat, hat, mat, fat, or the morphologically distinguished set ran, run, running. The units of a set must have something in common with one another, but they must contrast too, otherwise they could not be distinguished from each other and would collapse into a single unit, which could not constitute a set on its own, since a set always consists of more than one unit. Syntagmatic relations, in contrast, are concerned with how units, once selected from their paradigmatic sets of oppositions, are 'chained' together into structural wholes. One further common confusion here is that syntagmatic relations, assumed to occur in time, are anchored in speech and are considered either diachronic (confusing syntagmatic with historical) or are part of parole ("everyday speech": confusing syntagmatic with performance and behaviour and divorcing it from the linguistic system), or both.
Views: 8521 The Audiopedia
APL110 - Forensic Linguistics - An Overview
 
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In this overview of Forensic linguistics, Prof. Handke discusses the central goals of this new and growing disipline, as well as the central principles of voice identification and authorship profiling, including a typology of forensic texts.
Ferdinand de Saussure’s Structural Linguistics
 
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Ferdinand de Saussure’s Structural Linguistics Ferdinand de Saussure’s Structural Linguistics Ferdinand de Saussure’s Structural Linguistics Ferdinand de Saussure’s Structural Linguistics Ferdinand de Saussure’s Structural Linguistics Ferdinand de Saussure’s Structural Linguistics
Views: 2383 Positive thinker
The Concept of Language (Noam Chomsky)
 
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Linguist Noam Chomsky, professor at MIT, discusses the ways in which language changes over time and how the idea of a national language is a modern phenomenon. In this University of Washington interview, Upon Reflection host Al Page speaks with Chomsky about how languages are systems of communication rooted in human nature.
Views: 374263 UW Video
History of Contrastive Linguistics
 
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Lecture recorded on 24th Sept 2012.
Views: 2979 tesolnet
Semantic Shift
 
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How do the meanings of words change over time? This week, we look at semantic shift: how the senses of words drift over time, and how we can describe the different patterns we find across languages. This is Topic #26! This week's tag language: Swahili! Find us on all the social media worlds: Tumblr: http://thelingspace.tumblr.com/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/TheLingSpace/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thelingspace/ And at our website, https://www.thelingspace.com/ ! Our website also has extra content about this week's topic at www.thelingspace.com/episode-26/ We also have forums to discuss this episode, and linguistics more generally. Also, if you liked this video, you'll probably enjoy the Alliterative etymology video series at https://www.youtube.com/user/Alliterative ! Etymology sources: English meat: https://www.uni-due.de/SHE/HE_Change_Semantic.htm English girl: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/girl English deer: http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=deer Spanish rezar: https://books.google.ca/books?id=lV2DVLaPMBkC&pg=PA223&lpg=PA223&dq=spanish+semantic+narrowing&source=bl&ots=Z8znfeNufH&sig=7YGwLxYilHmSbc-bBkMttL6PjS4&hl=en&sa=X&ei=pxfuVKymI5CiyATNg4DoCw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=spanish%20semantic%20narrowing&f=false English holiday: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/holiday Japanese sake: Personal communication English grasp: Lyle Campbell, Historical Linguistics: An Introduction. MIT Press, 2004 English nice: https://www.uni-due.de/SHE/HE_Change_Semantic.htm German pumpernickel: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melioration_(Linguistik), http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pumpernickel English silly: https://www.uni-due.de/SHE/HE_Change_Semantic.htm French poison: http://www.cornelsen.de/erw/1.c.2442156.de#_1.c.2442086.de English immoral: http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=moral English hearse: http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=hearse Looking forward to next week!
Views: 13382 The Ling Space
What is Linguistics? (ENG)
 
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Subject:English Paper: Introduction to Linguistics & Phonetics
Views: 42732 Vidya-mitra
David Peterson - Design Principles Behind Authentic Language Creation​
 
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From shows like HBO's Game of Thrones and movies like Avatar, you may have heard of conlanging: the intentional construction of language. Designing a language can seem like a daunting task, but creating a functional language is rather simple, albeit time consuming. The languages created for Game of Thrones and other shows like The 100, Defiance, and Bright go beyond mere functionality, though. In this talk David Peterson will describe his process of authentic language creation, and detail how it applies both to spoken and written language invention. David Peterson is a language creator and author. He received a BA in English and a BA in Linguistics from UC Berkeley in 2003, and an MA in Linguistics from UC San Diego in 2005. Starting with HBO's Game of Thrones in 2009, David has been a professional language creator for almost ten years, and has created languages for almost 20 television shows, movies, and video games, including the CW's The 100, Marvel's Doctor Strange, and Netflix's Bright. In 2015 he released The Art of Language Invention with Penguin Books, a detailed guide to creating an authentic constructed language.
Views: 902 Beach TV CSULB
05 Principles of Writing Systems (1 of 2)
 
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series playlist : https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLfHWFPpm5iwTsb2vAVR2rRSpZG20OOlop
Views: 2034 Ziff Edu
The Holy Tongue - Source of All Languages Part 2 - Linguistics & Etymology
 
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This lecture, delivered by Rabbi Elyahu Kin in 2009, is part of a series on the origin and subsequent evolvement of language, with an emphasis on the Hebrew language. In Part 2 Rabbi Kin discusses Monogenesis, Historical and Evolutionary Linguistics, the formation of dialects, Phonology, and Etymology.
Views: 4027 7200beverly
Branches Of Linguistics (English Pedagogy)
 
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You can also support me at paytm as a donor. My paytm number is 9671544055 Thanks for the support
Views: 7854 PSYCHO 4 YOU
Comparative method (linguistics) | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparative_method 00:02:28 1 Demonstrating genetic relationship 00:03:25 1.1 Terminology 00:06:30 1.2 Origin and development of the method 00:13:43 1.3 Application 00:14:17 1.3.1 Step 1, assemble potential cognate lists 00:16:24 1.3.2 Step 2, establish correspondence sets 00:18:52 1.3.3 Step 3, discover which sets are in complementary distribution 00:23:58 1.3.4 Step 4, reconstruct proto-phonemes 00:27:09 1.3.5 Step 5, examine the reconstructed system typologically 00:30:15 2 Limitations 00:30:25 2.1 Problems with the history of historical linguistics 00:33:30 2.2 Problems with the neogrammarian hypothesis 00:34:25 2.2.1 Borrowing 00:34:50 2.2.2 Areal diffusion 00:35:55 2.2.3 Random mutations 00:36:39 2.2.4 Analogy 00:37:29 2.2.5 Gradual application 00:38:41 2.3 Problems with the tree model 00:39:15 2.3.1 The presumption of a well-defined node 00:43:54 2.3.2 Subjectivity of the reconstruction 00:46:51 2.3.3 Additional models 00:47:37 3 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7088956357310732 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-F "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor, in order to extrapolate back to infer the properties of that ancestor. The comparative method may be contrasted with the method of internal reconstruction, in which the internal development of a single language is inferred by the analysis of features within that language. Ordinarily both methods are used together to reconstruct prehistoric phases of languages, to fill in gaps in the historical record of a language, to discover the development of phonological, morphological, and other linguistic systems, and to confirm or refute hypothesised relationships between languages. The comparative method was developed over the 19th century. Key contributions were made by the Danish scholars Rasmus Rask and Karl Verner and the German scholar Jacob Grimm. The first linguist to offer reconstructed forms from a proto-language was August Schleicher, in his Compendium der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen, originally published in 1861. Here is Schleicher's explanation of why he offered reconstructed forms: In the present work an attempt is made to set forth the inferred Indo-European original language side by side with its really existent derived languages. Besides the advantages offered by such a plan, in setting immediately before the eyes of the student the final results of the investigation in a more concrete form, and thereby rendering easier his insight into the nature of particular Indo-European languages, there is, I think, another of no less importance gained by it, namely that it shows the baselessness of the assumption that the non-Indian Indo-European languages were derived from Old-Indian (Sanskrit).
Views: 8 wikipedia tts
Introduction to Structuralism - The Seven Principles
 
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This video is a brief introduction to Structuralism and its functioning principles. If you have ever wondered from which perspective Gilles Deleuze, Michel Foucault and other philosophers of their school looked at the world we live in, this is a way to start getting into their universe. If you want to read the original text, here is the complete citation: Deleuze, G. (1953). How do we recognize structuralism?. Desert islands and other texts, 1974, 170-192. To make this videos I have partially used the YouTube materials listed below: Fischer v. Byrne stop motion chess game: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=js-Z7FlhGnw INSANE Domino Tricks!: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ARM42-eorzE Animation: Rubik's cube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ieCgNb2zB9I 15-puzzle: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PAcAVXiJfh0 Enjoy
Views: 38587 Brain Blender
Is ‘global’ English a neoimperialist project?
 
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On Wednesday 15 February 2017, 13.15-14.45 Robert Phillipson and Tove Skutnabb-Kangas held a lecture entitled: "Is ‘global’ English compatible with local language ecologies and principles of language rights, or a neoimperialist project?" at the Centre for Languages and Literature (SOL, room H339). The lecture was jointly organised by the Centre for Languages and Literature and SASNET at Lund University. Abstract: The forces behind ‘global’ English and its increased use at all levels of education in many countries need critical scrutiny. English is fraudulently marketed by the British and American governments, with World Bank complicity, as though it is a universal ‘basic skill’. It conflates English with development, and in reality aims at consolidating Anglo-American power. There are clear examples of this in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. This contemporary surge represents a variant of worldwide efforts to eliminate the languages of Indigenous peoples and linguistic minorities. Such policies can be seen as a crime against humanity and constituting linguistic genocide. Creating a balance between dominant languages, nationally and internationally, and maintaining the vitality of local, minority and Indigenous language ecologies and principles of linguistic human rights is a major challenge, in South Asian countries as elsewhere.
Teun van Dijk. Discourse and Knowledge
 
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Speaker: Teun van Dijk, is a scholar in the fields of text linguistics, discourse analysis and Critical Discourse Analysis Author of several monographs including Text and context. Explorations in the semantics and pragmatics of discourse. London: Longman, 1977, Strategies of Discourse Comprehension. with Walter Kintsch. New York: Academic Press, 1983, News as Discourse. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1988. Annotation: In this lecture I'll tell about the progress of my new book Discourse and Knowledge by summarizing some results of the respective chapters of this multidiscpliinary study. I propose a new, relativist and naturalistic approach to knowledge defined as beliefs shared and justfied by the criteria of an epistemic community. I summarize how knowledge is involved in the cognitive processes of discourse production and comprehension, and how knowledge as a form of social cognition, just like attitudes and ideologies is shared in a sociocultural epistemic community or in specific social groups, for instance through epistemic institutions such as schools and the mass media. Since knowledge depends on the criteria of epistemic communities, an anthropological approach studies the cultural variation of knowledge(s) across the world. Finally, the linguistic and discourse analytical approach to knowledge goes beyond the usual study of the expression or presupposition of knowledge in sentences -- as is the case for the study of topic and focus, evidentials, modalities or presuppositions -- and details how knowledge is managed in discourse for the establishment of global (discursive) topic and focus, local and global coherence, various kinds of description, granularity, and many other properties of knowledge based on the expression of semantic situation models controlled by pragmatic context models.
Views: 68977 EUSPchannel
Exploring translation theories
 
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Lecture given at Rikkyo University, Japan, on June 6, 2010. Published as "Translation theory as historical problem-solving". Intercultural Communication Review 9 (2011). 49-61. Draft version here: http://usuaris.tinet.cat/apym/on-line/research_methods/2010_rikkyo_paper.pdf
Views: 24988 Anthony Pym
Language Acquisition and Universal Grammar
 
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How do babies get so good at language so quickly? Because they already know a lot from the beginning about how language works. In this week's episode of The Ling Space, we talk about Universal Grammar and evidence that babies are little language acquisition geniuses. This week's tag language: Japanese! This is Topic #1 - our very first video! Find us on all the social media worlds: Tumblr: thelingspace.tumblr.com Twitter: @TheLingSpace Facebook: www.facebook.com/thelingspace/ And at our website, www.thelingspace.com! The website also has extra content about the topic, as well as forums to discuss this episode, and linguistics more generally! If you're looking for the paper on the phonological models, that's Lisa Pearl's 2011 paper, "When unbiased probabilistic learning is not enough: Acquiring a parametric system of metrical phonology." http://www.socsci.uci.edu/~lpearl/papers/Pearl2011_UnbiasedAcqParam.pdf Subtitles: Spanish subtitles by Federico Falletti Looking forward to next week!
Views: 151744 The Ling Space
Formal and Functional Approaches in Linguistics
 
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Subject:Linguistics Paper: Language Studies
Views: 546 Vidya-mitra
What Is Biological Linguistics?
 
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Biolinguistics and the human capacity chomsky fodefine biolinguistics at dictionary. Biolinguistics wikipedia en. Biolinguistics wikipedia. It is a highly interdisciplinary field, including linguists, biologists, neuroscientists, psychologists, mathematicians, and others all humans can acquire at least one natural language. The biological model and historical linguistics jstor. Even the evolang dimension preview. Classification and evolution in biology, linguistics the history of biological determinism epistemology some. Now novel research shows how bayesian modeling can capture complex classification and evolution in biology, linguistics the history of science. Linguistics 001 communication a biological perspective. Faculty of language how biological is biolinguistics? . Googleusercontent search. Linguistics culture trumps biology in language development, study the biological origin of linguistic diversity ncbi nih. See more there are good reasons for these verbal analogies interesting mathematical affinities between computational linguistics and biology apr 14, 2011 the rules of language encoded in our genes, or they primarily shaped by speaker's cultural context? Leading linguistic thinkers have oct 30, 2012 diversity biological basis traditionally been treated separately, with nature origin latter being 27, 2017 after all, is little biochemistry, genetics, cellular current linguistics, even minimalist variety. Linguistic phylogenies are not the same as biological biolinguistics open journal systems. Linguists have long identified sound changes that occur in parallel. Edited by heiner fangerau, hans geisler, thorsten halling and william martin biological determinism epistemology in linguistics some considerations on the 'chomskyan revolution' [1]'given molecular forces a. Biology of language linguistics oxford bibliographies. Biological foundations of linguistic communication towards a culture and biology in the origins structure co occurrence biological diversity biodiversity linguistics evolution language change current. Although they both focus on issues that have deep roots in human thought, linguistics and biology are relatively young scientific disciplines oct 17, 2012 as a result, phylogenetic trees, showing descent from common ancestors, feature of evolutionary the journal biolinguistics explores biological foundations language appeals to linguists, philosophers, psychologists, biologists, neuroscientists, bad luck with models has left historical such herit age confusion specious explanations condition linguists reject or this is second two volumes first volume being waltraud brennenstuhl's control ability (p&b iii 4) treating biocybernetical questions culture origins linguistic structure cultural transmission, evolution explaining structural design features may 22, prior studies indicate similarities geographic arrangement diversity, although conclusions often been summary. Biolinguistics is the study of biology and evolution language
Views: 118 Another Question II
ELT | Role of Reform Movement in the History  Language Teaching | Bengali Lecture | PRC Foundation
 
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Reform stands for making a change, improvement, repairing or rectification and movement means going opposite to or reaction against an established idea or rule due to its drawbacks or monopolies. In the second half of 19th century, GTM was to face criticism due to its insufficient techniques and outputs for second language development. As a result, a “Reform Movement” was a must for language teaching and it happened and came into being with certain principles. The principles of ‘Reform Movement’ have been playing a vital role in the history of language teaching with a triumph march since its birth. The roles of Reform Movement focusing on its principles ELT Playlist: https://bit.ly/2JjgMsW Note: https://bit.ly/2Vx5lV4 Facebook: https://bit.ly/2ZyhA2e Group: https://bit.ly/2XnZfmy Instagram: https://bit.ly/2DpDOdn Reddit: https://bit.ly/2GvclYu Twitter: https://bit.ly/2vgacdG Linkedin: https://bit.ly/2Dpq3em Pinterest: https://bit.ly/2Pkt2tz Whatsapp: https://bit.ly/2GmLr4Q #prc_foundation #ELT #bengali_lecture
TYP112 - Language Contact
 
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What happens when languages come into contact? How can we classify the various principles of language contact and the resulting effects? These and other issues constitute the core of this E-Lecture where Prof. J. Handke is supported by one of his MA students from Jamaica.
Functionalism in Linguistics
 
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This video explores about one of the major schools of Linguistics "Functionalism".
Views: 1316 Resourceful
Linguistics-6| Levels of Linguistics in Urdu/Hindi, by Muhammad Waseem
 
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#Muhammadwaseem #thewayinstitute #linguistics Levels of linguistics is a lecture from the series of different lectures on linguistics. In the given lecture there is a detailed discussion about the different levels of language. What is sound? what is word formation and what is meaning level are discussed.
Views: 306 Muhammad Waseem
"The Programming Language Called Classical Chinese" by David Branner
 
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In this talk I present some of the ideas of context-free grammars and type systems, using Classical Chinese (the written language of common East Asian tradition) for the examples. Why Classical Chinese? Because you can fully describe the syntax of Classical Chinese using simple cases of these bedrock programming-language principles. What an astonishing and beautiful fact! As I introduce the principles I will illustrate them with actual examples, so that the discussion stays concrete. But you will need no prior exposure to Chinese; I will supplement Chinese script with tokens that monolingual English speakers can read. This talk comes out of a long gestation — years of working to make Classical Chinese accessible to learners in their early stages, and then coming to grips with theoretical computer science for myself. My aims are for the listener to observe how to apply basic ideas of context-free grammar and type systems to a highly unusual subject — and in the process to learn the outline of the elegant logical system at the core of Classical Chinese. David Branner David Branner is a student of Chinese language in its many forms and time-periods. After an academic career in the subject, he retired very early from his university and eventually found a more satisfying way to prosecute this quest by working as a coder. While following this path he spent the better part of two years at the Recurse Center in New York.
Views: 11204 Strange Loop
How to prepare for CBSE NET in Linguistics- Interview with Avinash, JRF Topper from JNU
 
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How to prepare for CBSE NET in Linguistics WWW.GETJRF.COM PROVIDES YOU ALL WHAT IS NEEDED FOR THE PREPARATION OF UGC NET EXAM FROM MATERIALS, PAPERS, QUESTION PAPERS AND TUTORIALS Transcript Q. About myself. A. Well, I was born and brought up in Faizabad, U.P. in a family where education is of utmost importance. After completing my secondary education in science, I got admission in History (Honors) in Zakir Husain Delhi College, University of Delhi. While studying History, I realized that there are many interdisciplinary courses which might help us understand some ‘untouched’ but important concepts of ‘traditional’ subjects like History, Sociology, Philosophy, Economics and Polity etc. In fact, these interdisciplinary subjects emerged only because of certain needs of these traditional subjects. And this is how and why I landed up in Linguistics. Now, I am about to complete my M.A. in Linguistics from JNU and I am determined to prove the relevance of Linguistics in traditional subjects after I get into M.Phil/Ph.D. Q. 1st paper. A. According to my perception, it is the first paper of UGC which decides whether you are going to get only NET or JRF as well. In short, first paper draws a line between NET and JRF. As far reading materials are concerned, I did not take help of any specific books as this paper consist of questions of general knowledge, aptitude, general reasoning, elementary mathematics and current affairs and I believe newspapers are sufficient to answer most of GK questions. Other questions have their answer in themselves as questions from passages, statistics, reasoning and mathematics require no rocket science and a little practice for few weeks will do it. One can always skip some questions you don’t like as you need to answer only 50 questions out of 60 and I suggest everyone to use this ‘life line’ wisely. Q. 2nd paper A. 2nd paper consists of basic concepts and principles of respective disciplines. In Linguistics, questions are asked from core courses like Morphology, Phonology, introductory psycholinguistics, introductory sociolinguistics etc. In this paper there are certain questions about the development of the discipline, like on a timeline. Thus it is always helpful to read about eminent scholars of respective field i.e. about Linguists in my case and their important concepts. It will be good if one could remember some of the path breaking books in Linguistics and their significance. Victoria Fromkin’s An Introduction to Language is certainly helpful for both- paper 2 and paper3. Q. 3rd paper A. For 3rd paper one requires even deeper knowledge of discipline. Advanced level of courses like psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, syntax, computational linguistics, stylistics, typology, historical linguistics etc. constitute significant proportion of questions in this paper. Unfortunately, there is no specific book available which could cover all these section. Hence, one needs to look for different online as well as offline sources for different sub disciplines. George Yule’s A Study of Language will be helpful for this paper. Q. Internet. A. As I said, electronic media is very important especially in my discipline, one cannot avoid e-help. Apart from Wikipedia, there are other useful websites especially Stanford University’s site where one can look for help. Different online quizzes are also available. Q. Mock test. A. Though, I didn’t get any model paper anywhere, previous years’ question paper available on UGC’s site helped me a lot as one may grasp the idea of question formation as well as current trend of paper setting from these papers. Q. Strategy A. With a right strategy, I guess three weeks are more than enough to get JRF in linguistics but one should have utilized his/her class studies accordingly for this purpose. Selection of proper reading materials is also very important. Well organized and well planned study will be fruitful. Q. Hours A. I would say it doesn’t matter at all as there was no fixed time-table or schedule for me. I prefer ‘smart work’ over ‘hard work’. But this is my personal opinion and people are free to disagree. Q. Pattern A. I believe that a certain number of descriptive questions can improve the quality of this exam. I also believe that objective type of questions can check our factual knowledge only and it cannot look into our understanding of the concepts and our opinions as we have to select from four fixed options and one may have a totally different but equally correct fifth approach or opinion. For some discipline, I believe, Descriptive pattern is a necessity. Q. what I learnt A. If you don’t wanna be part of crowd then you need to be different. My success lies in this difference as I had a different and may be a better and convenient approach
Views: 2410 Get JRF
Christian Matthiessen --  Language evolving: Notes towards a semiotic history of humanity
 
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Webcast sponsored by the Irving K. Barber Learning Centre, and hosted by the Department of Language and Literacy Education and the Faculty of Education as part of the plenary session at the 37th International Systemic Functional Congress, Matthiessen poses the theme that is "language evolving". This can be interpreted either very generally or more technically. (1) Taken very generally, this could mean language changing in any of the three time-frames that have been explored in systemic functional linguistics phylogenetic change (language changing in the human species, or in human societies, over a long period of time ranging from generations to history of the human species), ontogenetic change (language changing in human individuals [seen as organisms or as persons] in the course of a lifetime, or logogenetic change (language changing in the course of the unfolding of text). (2) Taken more technically (i.e. with "evolution" in the technical sense introduced by Darwin), this means language changing phylogenetically language evolving as part of the evolution of the human species (in biological terms) and as part of the evolution of human groups (in social terms), these two being complementary aspects of human evolution. However, Matthiesson focuses on the narrower, technical sense of "language evolving". More specifically, he explores the "big history" of humans - a deep time view of human evolution in linguistic, or more generally in semiotic terms, starting with the emergence of the human line and moving up to the present.