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Treaty Interpretation
 
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BOOK REVIEW TREATY INTERPRETATION Second Edition By Richard Gardiner Oxford University Press The Oxford International Law Library ISBN: 978 0 19966 923 3 www.oup.com FOR INTERNATIONAL LAWYERS: THE DEFINITIVE WORK ON THE INTERPRETATION OF TREATIES -- NOW IN A NEW EDITION An appreciation by Phillip Taylor MBE and Elizabeth Taylor of Richmond Green Chambers As the world ‘global village’ grows progressively smaller, the scope, reach and importance of international law looms correspondingly larger -- hence the need for the international lawyer to be able to interpret treaties in accordance with modern rules. Interestingly enough, interpreting treaties is regarded as an art by many who are expert in this field, including the author of this book, Richard Gardiner. ‘The increasing number and significance of treaties,’ he says, ‘has given added importance to the art of their interpretation.’ Certain critics have referred to this assessment as rather too glib and have asked ‘whether there were any rules for practising that art.’ Yes, asserts the author: ‘there are such rules.’ These are set out in the Vienna Convention of the Law of Treaties signed at Vienna in May 1969, known as ‘The Vienna Rules. ‘Those who would practice the art need to understand the rules,’ says the author, who, as a practising barrister, was a legal adviser at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and a member of the Faculty of Law at University College, London. Now in its second edition, the book sets out to explain the Vienna Rules, giving examples of interpretations reached by applying them. At the same time, no claim is made that the Vienna Rules resolve all the problems of interpretation. However, it is pointed out that the rules of treaty interpretation differ somewhat from typical rules for interpreting legal instruments and legislation within national legal systems. Even more importantly, the rules of treaty interpretation codified in the Vienna Convention are now applicable to virtually all treaties, both internationally and within individual national legal systems, where treaties have an impact on a wide range of matters which now grows ever larger. Published by the Oxford University Press as part of their International Law Library, this fully updated edition features case law from a broad range of jurisdictions and gives an account of the work of the International Law Commission in its relation to interpretative declarations. An impressive work of scholarship regarded as a classic in this field, the book builds its close and minute analysis with the support of references to real-life examples as part of its practical approach. And there are any number of these from the trades union closed shop, to the principle of freedom of speech, to anti-dumping. With its extensive footnoting, numbered paragraphs throughout and astoundingly lengthy and very useful bibliography of some twelve pages, this book also provides tables of cases, treaties and legislation, plus a detailed table of contents and index at the back. As a valuable resource for researchers, academics and diplomats as well as international lawyers, it will certainly be regarded as indispensable for anyone professionally involved in the law of treaty interpretation. The publication date is cited as at 28 February 2015.
Views: 613 Phillip Taylor
treaty law - interpretation of treaties 1
 
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What is "treaty" or "international agreement"?
Interpretation of Tax Treaties - CA Final International Tax Video Lectures
 
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Interpretation of Tax Treaties - CA Final International Tax Video Lectures Click here to buy entire course https://learn.arinjayacademy.com/learn/ca-final-international-taxation-elective-paper-6c? Hello Friends, Now Arinjay Academy is also available on telegram for all CA Final and CA Inter Updates Link – https://t.me/arinjayacademy
Views: 156 Arinjay Academy
Interpretation of Vienna Convention on Treaties - Article 31, 32 and 33
 
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Interpretation of Vienna Convention on Treaties - Article 31, 32 and 33 - CA Final International Tax Course link - https://learn.arinjayacademy.com/learn/ca-final-international-taxation-elective-paper-6c? In this video you will learn about certain terms and their uses for interpretation of tax treaties, viz, Preamble, meaning of terms used in treaty, model commentaries, etc. Vienna Convention on Treaties (Including International Tax ) - Article 31, 32 and 33 Hello Friends, Now Arinjay Academy is also available on telegram for all CA Final and CA Inter Updates Link – https://t.me/arinjayacademy
Views: 439 Arinjay Academy
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
 
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The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties is a treaty concerning the international law on treaties between states. It was adopted on 22 May 1969 and opened for signature on 23 May 1969. The Convention entered into force on 27 January 1980. The VCLT has been ratified by 114 states as of April 2014. Some countries that have not ratified the Convention, such as the United States, recognize parts of it as a restatement of customary law and binding upon them as such. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 20905 Audiopedia
Evolutionary Interpretation of Treaties: Controversy
 
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Eirik Bjorge discusses evolutionary interpretations of treaties, why they matter and why they are so controversial http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780198716143.do © Oxford University Press
What is MOON TREATY? What does MOON TREATY mean? MOON TREATY meaning, definition & explanation
 
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What is MOON TREATY? What does MOON TREATY mean? MOON TREATY meaning - MOON TREATY definition - MOON TREATY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ The Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, better known as the Moon Treaty or Moon Agreement, is an international treaty that turns jurisdiction of all celestial bodies (including the orbits around such bodies) over to the international community. Thus, all activities must conform to international law, including the United Nations Charter. In practice it is a failed treaty because it has not been ratified by any state that engages in self-launched manned space exploration or has plans to do so (e.g. the United States, the larger part of the member states of the European Space Agency, Russia (former Soviet Union), People's Republic of China, Japan, and India) since its creation in 1979, and thus has a negligible effect on actual spaceflight. As of November 2016, it has been ratified by 17 states. As a follow-on to the Outer Space Treaty, the Moon Treaty intended to establish a regime for the use of the Moon and other celestial bodies similar to the one established for the sea floor in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The treaty would apply to the Moon and to other celestial bodies within the Solar System, other than Earth, including orbits around or other trajectories to or around them. The treaty makes a declaration that the Moon should be used for the benefit of all states and all peoples of the international community. It also expresses a desire to prevent the Moon from becoming a source of international conflict. To those ends the treaty does the following: Bans any military use of celestial bodies, including weapon testing or as military bases. Bans all exploration and uses of celestial bodies without the approval or benefit of other states under the common heritage of mankind principle (article 11). Requires that the Secretary-General must be notified of all celestial activities (and discoveries developed thanks to those activities). Declares all states have an equal right to conduct research on celestial bodies. Declares that for any samples obtained during research activities, the state that obtained them must consider making part of it available to all countries/scientific communities for research. Bans altering the environment of celestial bodies and requires that states must take measures to prevent accidental contamination. Bans any state from claiming sovereignty over any territory of celestial bodies. Bans any ownership of any extraterrestrial property by any organization or person, unless that organization is international and governmental. Requires an international regime be set up to ensure safe and orderly development and management of the resources and sharing of the benefits from them. The treaty was finalized in 1979 and entered into force for the ratifying parties in 1984. As of November 2016, 17 states are parties to the treaty, seven of which ratified the agreement and the rest acceded. Four additional states have signed but not ratified the treaty. The L5 Society and others successfully opposed ratification of the treaty by the United States Senate. The objection to the treaty by the spacefaring nations is held to be the requirement that extracted resources (and the technology used to that end) must be shared with other nations. The similar regime in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea is believed to impede the development of such industries on the seabed.
Views: 305 The Audiopedia
Diplomatic Immunity Explained | Lex Animata | Hesham Elrafei
 
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What is Diplomatic Immunity? By Hesham Elrafei https://www.linkedin.com/in/heshamelrafei This video explains the inviolability of diplomats and envoys in International Law and their immunity from court jurisdiction as per the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (1961 ) . Immunity of the embassy Premises & properties, like the buildings, , Vehicles, Archives, and Communications .Immunity of the personnel working in the embassy , which entails the Diplomatic envoys and their families and other admin and technical staff. Linkedin: lnkdin.me/mido Twitter : https://twitter.com/law_visualizer
Views: 84619 Hesham Elrafei
Treaty Interpretation 1 - Treaty Conference
 
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The panel backgrounder can be viewed at this link: http://vitreaties.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/backgrounder-interpretation.pdf Panelists: •Dr. Bruce G. Miller •Chris Arnett •Neil Vallance •Clo Ostrove •Hamar Foster, Q.C. (Moderator) Video Production by Paul Manly & Manly Media Ltd.
Views: 540 Snuneymuxw
13  Interpretation of Treaties - Liberal or Strict - International Tax by CA Arinjay Jain
 
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Purchase the entire Course at https://www.arinjayacademy.com/learn/ca-final-international-taxation-elective-paper-6c?tab=3. Buy Full Course for USD 100 at https://www.arinjayacademy.com/learn/International-tax-course? Learn about Interpretation of Treaties - Liberal or Strict Course Faculty - CA Arinjay Kumar Jain Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/Internationaltaxcourse/ Course Faculty - CA Arinjay Kumar Jain Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/Internationaltaxcourse/
Prevention of Treaty abuse
 
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EY Partner at International Tax Services Christian Ehlermann, gives his views on the practical impacts within the area of prevention of treaty abuse and the changed interpretation of the tax treaty rules, comming in the wake of the OECD work.
Views: 255 EY Danmark
Rules of war (in a nutshell)
 
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Yes, even wars have laws. To find out more, visit http://therulesofwar.org ******** Rules of War in a Nutshell - script Since the beginning, humans have resorted to violence as a way to settle disagreements. Yet through the ages, people from around the world have tried to limit the brutality of war. It was this humanitarian spirit that led to the First Geneva Convention of 1864,and to the birth of modern International Humanitarian Law. Setting the basic limits on how wars can be fought, these universal laws of war protect those not fighting, as well as those no longer able to. To do this, a distinction must always be made between who or what may be attacked, and who or what must be spared and protected. - CIVILIANS - Most importantly, civilians can never be targeted. To do so is a war crime. “When they drove into our village, they shouted that they were going to kill everyone. I was so scared, I ran to hide in the bush. I heard my mother screaming. I thought I would never see her again.” Every possible care must be taken to avoid harming civilians or destroying things essential for their survival. They have a right to receive the help they need. - DETAINEES - “The conditions prisoners lived in never used to bother me. People like him were the reason my brother was dead. He was the enemy and was nothing to me. But then I realized that behind bars, he was out of action and no longer a threat to me or my family.” The laws of war prohibit torture and other ill-treatment of detainees, whatever their past. They must be given food and water and allowed to communicate with loved ones. This preserves their dignity and keeps them alive. - SICK & WOUNDED - Medical workers save lives, sometimes in the most dangerous conditions. “Several fighters from both sides had been critically wounded in a fierce battle and we were taking them to the closest hospital. At a checkpoint, a soldier threatened us, demanding that we only treat his men. Time was running out and I was afraid they were all going to die.” Medical workers must always be allowed to do their job and the Red Cross or Red Crescent must not be attacked. The sick or wounded have a right to be cared for, regardless of whose side they are on. - LIMITS TO WARFARE - Advances in weapons technology has meant that the rules of war have also had to adapt. Because some weapons and methods of warfare don't distinguish between fighters and civilians, limits on their use have been agreed. In the future, wars may be fought with fully autonomous robots. But will such robots ever have the ability to distinguish between a military target and someone who must never be attacked? No matter how sophisticated weapons become it is essential that they are in line with the rules of war. International Humanitarian Law is all about making choices that preserve a minimum of human dignity in times of war, and makes sure that living together again is possible once the last bullet has been shot.
Jus Cogens , Peremptory norms explained | Lex Animata | Hesham Elrafei
 
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What is Jus Cogens ( Peremptory norms ) ? By Hesham Elrafei https://www.linkedin.com/in/heshamelrafei This animation video visualize and simply the concept of Jus Cogens in International law as per the Article 53 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969, the video examines the following in terms of : definition and meaning of the term, origin in the roman law ( JUS STRICTUM & JUS DISPOSITIVUM ) , example of jus cogens norms ( genocide , crimes against humanity , slavery trade , torture, use of force, piracy , violation of human rights etc ) and the legal effect of an agreement violating a jus cogens norm: void.
Views: 58216 Hesham Elrafei
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969
 
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This Convention is codified in 1969 in Vienna, Austria. It provides rules of processes to conclude international treaty.
Views: 238 Share.knowledge KH
Justice Feliciano on the Interpretation of Treaties
 
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To watch the full lecture, please go to http://legal.un.org/avl/ls/Feliciano_IEL.html Justice Florentino P. Feliciano, Former Member and Chairman, Appellate Body, World Trade Organization
International treaties and agreements PART 2 | General studies for civils | General knowledge
 
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A treaty under international law is an agreement entered into by sovereign states and international organizations. Treaties are comparable to contracts, in the sense that both are means of willing parties assuming obligations among themselves. In both treaties and contracts, a party to either that fails to live up to their obligations can be held liable under international law. The central principle of treaty law is expressed in the maxim pacta sunt servanda—”pacts must be respected”. Treaties under international law may either be bilateral or unilateral. Multilateral treaties establish the rights and obligations between the parties. Moreover, multilateral treaties are often, but not always regional. Bilateral treaties by contrast are negotiated between a limited number of states, most commonly only two, establishing legal rights and obligations between those two states only. Though on entering into a treaty, the states become generally bound by the terms of the treaty, it is possible to modify, alter or amend treaty obligations. These are possible through Amendments, Protocols and Reservations. Reservations are unilateral statement purporting to exclude or to modify the legal obligation and its effects on the reserving state. These must be included at the time of signing or ratification. In other words, a party cannot add a reservation after it has already joined a treaty. An existing treaty can be amended in three ways. First, formal amendment requires States parties to the treaty to go through the ratification process all over again. The re-negotiation of treaty provisions can be long and protracted, and often some parties to the original treaty will not become parties to the amended treaty. When determining the legal obligations of states, one party to the original treaty and one a party to the amended treaty, the states will only be bound by the terms they both agreed upon. Treaties can also be amended informally by the treaty executive council when the changes are only procedural, technical, or administrative. Finally, a change in customary international law can also amend a treaty, where state behavior evinces a new interpretation of the legal obligations under the treaty. In international law and international relations, a protocol is generally a treaty or international agreement that supplements a previous treaty or international agreement. A protocol can amend the previous treaty, or add additional provisions. Interpretation of a treaty is also a subject of importance under international law. The language of treaties, like that of any law or contract, must be interpreted when the wording does not seem clear or it is not immediately apparent how it should be applied in a perhaps unforeseen circumstance. The Vienna Convention states that treaties are to be interpreted “in good faith” according to the “ordinary meaning given to the terms of the treaty in their context and in the light of its object and purpose.” No one party to a treaty can impose its particular interpretation of the treaty upon the other parties. Consent may be implied, however, if the other parties fail to explicitly disavow that initially unilateral interpretation, particularly if that state has acted upon its view of the treaty without complaint. Consent by all parties to the treaty to a particular interpretation has the legal effect of adding an additional clause to the treaty – this is commonly called an ‘authentic interpretation’. A party to a treaty may also put an end to it either by withdrawal, suspension or termination. While many treaties expressly forbid withdrawal, other treaties are silent on the issue, and so if a state attempts withdrawal through its own unilateral denunciation of the treaty, a determination must be made regarding whether permitting withdrawal is contrary to the original intent of the parties or to the nature of the treaty. If a party has materially violated or breached its treaty obligations, the other parties may invoke this breach as grounds for temporarily suspending their obligations to that party under the treaty. A material breach may also be invoked as grounds for permanently terminating the treaty itself.
Views: 156 Speakok
What is the difference between treaty protocol and convention ?
 
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Treaty-An international agreement between two parties, members or even nations. Protocol-A document that is legally binding that allows alterations and amendments to the main treaty. Convention-A convention is something that happens prior to a treaty being formed. A convention can also mean a treaty among a number of countries.
Views: 3660 Quikr Exam
The Treaty of Versailles, What Did the Big Three Want? 1/2
 
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World War I officially came to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on June 28, 1919. 32 countries had come together in Paris in January 1919 to hold a conference which would make peace after the First World War. It would be dominated by the ‘big three’: - David Lloyd George, representing Britain, Georges Clemençeau representing France and Woodrow Wilson representing the USA. Wilson's 14 points: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/wilson14.asp Support the cartoons on patreon: https://www.patreon.com/simplehistory?ty=c Get your copy of Simple History: World War I today! https://www.amazon.com/Simple-History-World-War-I/dp/1536830402/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8 Simple history gives you the facts, simple! See the book collection here: Amazon USA http://www.amazon.com/Daniel-Turner/e/B00H5TYLAE/ref=sr_ntt_srch_lnk_1?qid=1457289367&sr=8-1 Amazon UK http://www.amazon.co.uk/Daniel-Turner/e/B00H5TYLAE/ref=sr_ntt_srch_lnk_1?qid=1457289367&sr=8-1 http://www.simplehistory.co.uk/ https://www.facebook.com/Simple-History-549437675141192/ https://twitter.com/simple_guides Credit: Narrator: Chris Kane http://ckvox.com/ Animation: Daniel Turner artwork: Daniel turner Victoria Volodina Music: Opus One by Audionautix is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Artist: http://audionautix.com/ In the West by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Source: http://incompetech.com/music/royalty-free/index.html?isrc=USUAN1100746 Artist: http://incompetech.com/
Views: 925391 Simple History
International treaties and agreements PART 1 | General studies for civils | General knowledge
 
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A treaty under international law is an agreement entered into by sovereign states and international organizations. Treaties are comparable to contracts, in the sense that both are means of willing parties assuming obligations among themselves. In both treaties and contracts, a party to either that fails to live up to their obligations can be held liable under international law. The central principle of treaty law is expressed in the maxim pacta sunt servanda—”pacts must be respected”. Treaties under international law may either be bilateral or unilateral. Multilateral treaties establish the rights and obligations between the parties. Moreover, multilateral treaties are often, but not always regional. Bilateral treaties by contrast are negotiated between a limited number of states, most commonly only two, establishing legal rights and obligations between those two states only. Though on entering into a treaty, the states become generally bound by the terms of the treaty, it is possible to modify, alter or amend treaty obligations. These are possible through Amendments, Protocols and Reservations. Reservations are unilateral statement purporting to exclude or to modify the legal obligation and its effects on the reserving state. These must be included at the time of signing or ratification. In other words, a party cannot add a reservation after it has already joined a treaty. An existing treaty can be amended in three ways. First, formal amendment requires States parties to the treaty to go through the ratification process all over again. The re-negotiation of treaty provisions can be long and protracted, and often some parties to the original treaty will not become parties to the amended treaty. When determining the legal obligations of states, one party to the original treaty and one a party to the amended treaty, the states will only be bound by the terms they both agreed upon. Treaties can also be amended informally by the treaty executive council when the changes are only procedural, technical, or administrative. Finally, a change in customary international law can also amend a treaty, where state behavior evinces a new interpretation of the legal obligations under the treaty. In international law and international relations, a protocol is generally a treaty or international agreement that supplements a previous treaty or international agreement. A protocol can amend the previous treaty, or add additional provisions. Interpretation of a treaty is also a subject of importance under international law. The language of treaties, like that of any law or contract, must be interpreted when the wording does not seem clear or it is not immediately apparent how it should be applied in a perhaps unforeseen circumstance. The Vienna Convention states that treaties are to be interpreted “in good faith” according to the “ordinary meaning given to the terms of the treaty in their context and in the light of its object and purpose.” No one party to a treaty can impose its particular interpretation of the treaty upon the other parties. Consent may be implied, however, if the other parties fail to explicitly disavow that initially unilateral interpretation, particularly if that state has acted upon its view of the treaty without complaint. Consent by all parties to the treaty to a particular interpretation has the legal effect of adding an additional clause to the treaty – this is commonly called an ‘authentic interpretation’. A party to a treaty may also put an end to it either by withdrawal, suspension or termination. While many treaties expressly forbid withdrawal, other treaties are silent on the issue, and so if a state attempts withdrawal through its own unilateral denunciation of the treaty, a determination must be made regarding whether permitting withdrawal is contrary to the original intent of the parties or to the nature of the treaty. If a party has materially violated or breached its treaty obligations, the other parties may invoke this breach as grounds for temporarily suspending their obligations to that party under the treaty. A material breach may also be invoked as grounds for permanently terminating the treaty itself.
Views: 569 Speakok
International treaties and agreements PART 3 | General studies for civils | General knowledge
 
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A treaty under international law is an agreement entered into by sovereign states and international organizations. Treaties are comparable to contracts, in the sense that both are means of willing parties assuming obligations among themselves. In both treaties and contracts, a party to either that fails to live up to their obligations can be held liable under international law. The central principle of treaty law is expressed in the maxim pacta sunt servanda—”pacts must be respected”. Treaties under international law may either be bilateral or unilateral. Multilateral treaties establish the rights and obligations between the parties. Moreover, multilateral treaties are often, but not always regional. Bilateral treaties by contrast are negotiated between a limited number of states, most commonly only two, establishing legal rights and obligations between those two states only. Though on entering into a treaty, the states become generally bound by the terms of the treaty, it is possible to modify, alter or amend treaty obligations. These are possible through Amendments, Protocols and Reservations. Reservations are unilateral statement purporting to exclude or to modify the legal obligation and its effects on the reserving state. These must be included at the time of signing or ratification. In other words, a party cannot add a reservation after it has already joined a treaty. An existing treaty can be amended in three ways. First, formal amendment requires States parties to the treaty to go through the ratification process all over again. The re-negotiation of treaty provisions can be long and protracted, and often some parties to the original treaty will not become parties to the amended treaty. When determining the legal obligations of states, one party to the original treaty and one a party to the amended treaty, the states will only be bound by the terms they both agreed upon. Treaties can also be amended informally by the treaty executive council when the changes are only procedural, technical, or administrative. Finally, a change in customary international law can also amend a treaty, where state behavior evinces a new interpretation of the legal obligations under the treaty. In international law and international relations, a protocol is generally a treaty or international agreement that supplements a previous treaty or international agreement. A protocol can amend the previous treaty, or add additional provisions. Interpretation of a treaty is also a subject of importance under international law. The language of treaties, like that of any law or contract, must be interpreted when the wording does not seem clear or it is not immediately apparent how it should be applied in a perhaps unforeseen circumstance. The Vienna Convention states that treaties are to be interpreted “in good faith” according to the “ordinary meaning given to the terms of the treaty in their context and in the light of its object and purpose.” No one party to a treaty can impose its particular interpretation of the treaty upon the other parties. Consent may be implied, however, if the other parties fail to explicitly disavow that initially unilateral interpretation, particularly if that state has acted upon its view of the treaty without complaint. Consent by all parties to the treaty to a particular interpretation has the legal effect of adding an additional clause to the treaty – this is commonly called an ‘authentic interpretation’. A party to a treaty may also put an end to it either by withdrawal, suspension or termination. While many treaties expressly forbid withdrawal, other treaties are silent on the issue, and so if a state attempts withdrawal through its own unilateral denunciation of the treaty, a determination must be made regarding whether permitting withdrawal is contrary to the original intent of the parties or to the nature of the treaty. If a party has materially violated or breached its treaty obligations, the other parties may invoke this breach as grounds for temporarily suspending their obligations to that party under the treaty. A material breach may also be invoked as grounds for permanently terminating the treaty itself.
Views: 101 Speakok
Interpreting negotiations of Treaty of Rome
 
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On 26 June 1956, negotiations on treaties to establish an European Economic Community and an Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) started between Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and The Netherlands at the small castle of Val Duchesse on the outskirts of Brussels. With the European Coal and Steel Communitiy they were to form the European Communities, later the EC and now the European Union. Two of the interpreters at the Intergovernmental Conference that drew up the Treaties of Rome (signed in 1957) talk about the working conditions at the time and the atmosphere of the negotiations. The negotiations lasted nine months and were carried through with a team of 6 interpreters, first in consecutive and later on also in simultaneous. The team was put together by Renée van Hoof, who went on to become the first Director General of the European Commission's interpreting service, later DG SCIC or DG Interpretation. Dieter Frisch, member of the interpreting team and later to become Director General of Development after leaving the interpreting service, appears as well. This is an excerpt from Living Memory, with text, narration and video by Susan Roberts and interviews by Ian Andersen. © VideoSCIC, European Commission 2003.
Views: 4099 EU Interpreters
What is LAW OF THE SEA? What does LAW OF THE SEA mean? LAW OF THE SEA meaning & explanation
 
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I MAKE CUTE BABIES - https://amzn.to/2S0mT9u What is LAW OF THE SEA? What does LAW OF THE SEA mean? LAW OF THE SEA meaning - LAW OF THE SEA definition - LAW OF THE SEA explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Law of the Sea is a body of international law that concerns the principles and rules by which public entities, especially states, interact in maritime matters, including navigational rights, sea mineral rights, and coastal waters jurisdiction. It is the public law counterpart to admiralty law, which concerns private maritime intercourse. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, or "UNCLOS", concluded in 1982 and put into force in 1994, is generally accepted as a codification of customary international law of the sea. Disputes are resolved at the International Tribunal of the Law of the Sea (or "ITLOS"), a court in Hamburg. In 2017, ITLOS celebrated 20 years of existence, during which time it had settled some 25 cases. The Tribunal has jurisdiction over all disputes concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention, subject to the provisions of article 297 and to the declarations made in accordance with article 298 of the Convention. The judge are derived from a wide variety of nations. With many people worldwide now turning their eyes to an ocean in peril, the Law of the Sea convention turned into a global diplomatic effort to create a basis of laws and principles for all nations to follow concerning the sea and everything it held. The result: A 1982 oceanic constitution, called the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Between New York, USA and Geneva, Switzerland, ambassadors from 165+ countries sat down to trade and barter for their nations' rights. The conference created the standard for a 12-mile territorial sea around a land and allowed it to gain universal acceptance. Within these limits, states are free to enforce any of their own laws or regulations or use any resources. Furthermore, each signatory coastal state is granted an Exclusive Economic Zone (or "EEZ"), in which that state has exclusive rights to fisheries, mineral rights and sea-floor deposits. The Convention allows for "innocent passage" through both territorial waters and the EEZ, meaning merchant ships do not have to avoid such waters, provided they do not do any harm to the country or break any of its laws. Military ships do NOT have the right to pass through another nation's EEZ unless permission is granted. This can cause difficulties for Russia, whose Baltic fleet and Black Sea fleet do not have unobstructed access to the great oceans. By contrast, the USA (which is not a signatory to UNCLOS) has free access to the Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic oceans, and to the Gulf of Mexico. Because the EEZ is so extensive, ITLOS may need to determine the ocean boundaries between states, as they did in 2012 between Bangladesh and Burma (Myanmar). As the Arctic Ocean becomes increasingly important for both navigation and resources, the USA may find it necessary to submit to UNCLOS to clarify the Alaska/Canada border. The Law of the Sea should be distinguished from Maritime Law, which deals with topics such as law of carriage of goods by sea, salvage, collisions, marine insurance and so on. In maritime law disputes, normally at least one party is a private litigant, such an individual or a corporation.
Views: 21424 The Audiopedia
Treaty Meaning
 
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Video shows what treaty means. A binding agreement concluded by subjects of international law, namely states and international organizations.. A formal agreement between two or more states.. treaty synonyms: international agreement, protocol, covenant, convention, exchange of letters, exchange of note. treaty pronunciation. How to pronounce, definition by Wiktionary dictionary. treaty meaning. Powered by MaryTTS
Views: 3177 SDictionary
What is OUTER SPACE TREATY? What does OUTER SPACE TREATY mean? OUTER SPACE TREATY meaning
 
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What is OUTER SPACE TREATY? What does OUTER SPACE TREATY mean? OUTER SPACE TREATY meaning - OUTER SPACE TREATY definition - OUTER SPACE TREATY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. The Outer Space Treaty, formally the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, is a treaty that forms the basis of international space law. The treaty was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union on 27 January 1967, and entered into force on 10 October 1967. As of January 2017, 105 countries are parties to the treaty, while another 24 have signed the treaty but have not completed ratification. In addition, the Republic of China (Taiwan), which is currently only recognized by 20 UN member states, ratified the treaty prior to the United Nations General Assembly's vote to transfer China's seat to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1971. The Outer Space Treaty represents the basic legal framework of international space law. Among its principles, it bars states party to the treaty from placing weapons of mass destruction in orbit of Earth, installing them on the Moon or any other celestial body, or otherwise stationing them in outer space. It exclusively limits the use of the Moon and other celestial bodies to peaceful purposes and expressly prohibits their use for testing weapons of any kind, conducting military maneuvers, or establishing military bases, installations, and fortifications (Article IV). However, the Treaty does not prohibit the placement of conventional weapons in orbit and thus some highly destructive attack strategies such as kinetic bombardment are still potentially allowable. The treaty also states that the exploration of outer space shall be done to benefit all countries and that space shall be free for exploration and use by all the States. The treaty explicitly forbids any government from claiming a celestial resource such as the Moon or a planet. Article II of the Treaty states that "outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means". However, the State that launches a space object retains jurisdiction and control over that object. The State is also liable for damages caused by their space object. Article 6 of the Outer Space Treaty deals with international responsibility, stating that "the activities of non-governmental entities in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall require authorization and continuing supervision by the appropriate State Party to the Treaty" and that States Parties shall bear international responsibility for national space activities whether carried out by governmental or non-governmental entities. As a result of discussions arising from Project West Ford in 1963, a consultation clause was included in Article 9 of the Outer Space Treaty: "A State Party to the Treaty which has reason to believe that an activity or experiment planned by another State Party in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, would cause potentially harmful interference with activities in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, may request consultation concerning the activity or experiment."
Views: 2276 The Audiopedia
What is MULTILATERAL TREATY? What does MULTILATERAL TREATY mean? MULTILATERAL TREATY meaning
 
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What is MULTILATERAL TREATY? What does MULTILATERAL TREATY mean? MULTILATERAL TREATY meaning - MULTILATERAL TREATY definition - MULTILATERAL TREATY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ A multilateral treaty is a treaty to which three or more sovereign states are parties. Each party owes the same obligations to all other parties, except to the extent that they have stated reservations. Examples of multilateral treaties include the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the Geneva Conventions, and the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. A bilateral treaty is a treaty between two states. A bilateral treaty may become a multilateral treaty when additional new parties succeed or accede to it. A plurilateral treaty is a special type of multilateral treaty. A plurilateral treaty is a treaty between a limited number of states with a particular interest in the subject of the treaty. The primary difference between a plurilateral treaty and other multilateral treaties is that the availability of reservations is more limited under a plurilateral treaty. Due to the limited nature of a plurilateral treaty, the full cooperation of the parties to the treaty is required in order for the object of the treaty to be met. As a result, reservations to plurilateral treaties are not allowed without the consent of all other parties to the treaty. This principle is codified in international law by article 20(2) of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties: When it appears from the limited number of the negotiating states and the object and purpose of a treaty that the application of the treaty in its entirety between all the parties is an essential condition of the consent of each one to be bound by the treaty, a reservation requires acceptance by all the parties. An example of a plurilateral treaty is the Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959.
Views: 174 The Audiopedia
What Laws Apply In International Waters?
 
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Pope Francis recently granted sainthood to two 19th century Palestinian nuns. So we were wondering what are the qualifications for becoming a saint? » Subscribe to NowThis World: http://go.nowth.is/World_Subscribe Learn More: Pope Francis Is Making Saints Out Of Two Palestinian Nuns http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/05/13/pope-francis-saints-palestinian-nuns_n_7260252.html "Pope Francis will bestow sainthood on two Palestinian nuns on Sunday (May 17), a move that's being seen as giving hope to the conflict-wracked Middle East and shining the spotlight on the plight of Christians in the region." How does someone become a saint? http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-27140646 "Pope John Paul II and Pope John XXIII are to be declared saints by the Catholic Church." Is Mother Teresa's Miracle for Real? http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/explainer/2003/10/is_mother_teresas_miracle_for_real.html "On Sunday, Pope John Paul II beatified Mother Teresa of Calcutta, bringing her one step closer to sainthood." _________________________ NowThis World is dedicated to bringing you topical explainers about the world around you. Each week we’ll be exploring current stories in international news, by examining the facts, providing historical context, and outlining the key players involved. We’ll also highlight powerful countries, ideologies, influential leaders, and ongoing global conflicts that are shaping the current landscape of the international community across the globe today. More from NowThis: » Subscribe to NowThis News: http://go.nowth.is/News_Subscribe » Like NowThis World on Facebook: https://go.nowth.is/World_Facebook » Connect with Judah: Follow @judah_robinson on Twitter – Facebook: http://go.nowth.is/LikeJudah » Connect with Versha: Follow @versharma on Twitter – Facebook: http://go.nowth.is/LikeVersha http://www.youtube.com/nowthisworld Special thanks to Lissette Padilla for hosting TestTube! Check Lissette out on Twitter:https://twitter.com/lizzette
Views: 253464 NowThis World
4.1.8 - International Declarations and Treaties and the External Affairs Power
 
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##UPDATE - now 4.1.8 after the real 4.1.6 was accidentally missed. Please disregard references to 4.1.7 in the video *facepalm*## Educational videos for VCE Legal Studies LINKS: Video on the Tas Dams case and Koowarta case: http://wiki.engageeducation.org.au/legal-studies/unit-3/area-of-study-2-the-constitution-and-the-protection-of-rights/high-court-cases-affecting-the-division-of-law-making-powers/ Treaty making process: http://dfat.gov.au/international-relations/treaties/treaty-making-process/Pages/treaty-making-process.aspx Australian treaties database: http://dfat.gov.au/international-relations/treaties/Pages/treaties.aspx 1996 report on the External Affairs power from the Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs: https://www.aph.gov.au/parliamentary_business/committees/senate/legal_and_constitutional_affairs/completed_inquiries/pre1996/treaty/report/c05 PHOTO CREDIT: Rock Island Bend by Peter Dombrovskis
Views: 1277 The Legal Studies Guy
Strengthening tax treaties to fight tax avoidance
 
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The OECD/G20 Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Project delivers solutions for closing the gaps in existing international rules that have allowed corporate profits to “disappear” or be artificially shifted to low or no-tax environments, where companies have little or no economic activity. Since June 2017, nearly 80 countries have signed a new Multilateral Convention developed as part of the BEPS Project. The Convention will enable governments to swiftly update their networks of existing tax treaties and further reduce opportunities for tax avoidance. The Convention is expected to enter into force in mid-2018. For further information, go to: http://oe.cd/mli
Views: 4337 OECD
What is WESTPHALIAN SOVEREIGNTY? What does WESTPHALIAN SOVEREIGNTY mean?
 
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THE BEST DAD IN THE GALAXY - https://amzn.to/2DlWeMl What is WESTPHALIAN SOVEREIGNTY? What does WESTPHALIAN SOVEREIGNTY mean? WESTPHALIAN SOVEREIGNTY meaning - WESTPHALIAN SOVEREIGNTY definition -WESTPHALIAN SOVEREIGNTY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Westphalian sovereignty is the principle of international law that each nation state has sovereignty over its territory and domestic affairs, to the exclusion of all external powers, on the principle of non-interference in another country's domestic affairs, and that each state (no matter how large or small) is equal in international law. The doctrine is named after the Peace of Westphalia, signed in 1648, which ended the Thirty Years' War, in which the major continental European states – the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, France, Sweden and the Dutch Republic – agreed to respect one another's territorial integrity. As European influence spread across the globe, the Westphalian principles, especially the concept of sovereign states, became central to international law and to the prevailing world order. Scholars of international relations have identified the modern, Western-originated, international system of states, multinational corporations, and organizations, as having begun at the Peace of Westphalia. Both the basis and the conclusion of this view have been attacked by some revisionist academics and politicians, with revisionists questioning the significance of the Peace, and some commentators and politicians attacking the Westphalian system of sovereign nation-states. The traditional view of the Westphalian system is that the Peace of Westphalia was an agreement to respect the principle of territorial integrity. In the Westphalian system, the national interests and goals of states (and later nation-states) were widely assumed to go beyond those of any citizen or any ruler. States became the primary institutional agents in an interstate system of relations. The Peace of Westphalia is said to have ended attempts to impose supranational authority on European states. The "Westphalian" doctrine of states as independent agents was bolstered by the rise in 19th century thought of nationalism, under which legitimate states were assumed to correspond to nations—groups of people united by language and culture. The Westphalian system reached its peak in the late 19th century. Although practical considerations still led powerful states to seek to influence the affairs of others, forcible intervention by one country in the domestic affairs of another was less frequent between 1850 and 1900 than in most previous and subsequent periods. The Peace of Westphalia is important in modern international relations theory, and is often defined as the beginning of the international system with which the discipline deals. International-relation theorists have identified several key principles of the Peace of Westphalia, which explain the Peace's significance and its effect on the world today: 1. The principle of the sovereignty of states and the fundamental right of political self determination. 2. The principle of legal equality between states. 3. The principle of non-intervention of one state in the internal affairs of another state. These principles are shared by the "realist" international relations paradigm today, which explains why the system of states is referred to as "The Westphalian System". Both the idea of Westphalian sovereignty and its applicability in practice have been questioned from the mid-20th century onward from a variety of viewpoints. Much of the debate has turned on the ideas of internationalism and globalization which, in various interpretations, appear to conflict with Westphalian The Westphalian system is used as a shorthand by academics to describe the system of states which make up the world today. In 1998, at a Symposium on the Continuing Political Relevance of the Peace of Westphalia, NATO Secretary-General Javier Solana said that "humanity and democracy two principles essentially irrelevant to the original Westphalian order" and levied a criticism that "the Westphalian system had its limits. For one, the principle of sovereignty it relied on also produced the basis for rivalry, not community of states; exclusion, not integration."
Views: 26735 The Audiopedia
Biggest SECRET - The REAL PEACE TREATY - Humans v. Nephilim - Rh Neg Bloodlines
 
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Please help support us on Patreon, help the #GreatAwakening spread to more humans, FASTER. Here is our NEW Patreon Page https://www.patreon.com/XtremeRealityCheck Ancient Aliens TV "programs" preach that the "Aliens" are our creators and saviors. We see UFO's hovering over bases and disabling silos. So what is really going on? How can Obama, Nephilim, Rh Neg bloodlines, genetic engineering and cloning have anything to do with Israel and the Peace Treaty? _________________________________________________________________ DO YOU WANT TO GET SAVED? Here is a link to a prayer and intro on my website if you need help: http://www.xtremerealitycheck.com/getsaved.html _________________________________________________________________ 5 SHOCKING things you never knew were IN THE BIBLE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ggSZPhJhbIs Earth Changes - global Cataclysm: Noah's Flood... Then and NOW video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b7-vFE5HZX8 The BIGGEST SECRET Hidden in Plain SIGHT - The ROCKS were ALIVE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=62gNrlTkOKE Another HUGE SECRET Hidden in Plain SIGHT - Giant TREES - "Tree of Life" in the GARDEN https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1TPw4o-C0-o ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ If you would like to SUPPORT this work CLICK HERE: https://www.gofundme.com/finish-strong-4-jesus-christ-legal or paypal.me/XtremeRealityCheck _________________________________________________________________ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ If you would like to SUPPORT this work CLICK HERE: https://www.gofundme.com/finish-strong-4-jesus-christ-legal or paypal.me/XtremeRealityCheck _____________________________________________________________ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ great awakening, new age, end of age, greatawakening, great tribulation, bible prophecy, book of revelation, Jesus Christ, God, Holy Spirit, Holy Bible, end times, endtimes, Jesus is coming Hero's Theme by Twin Musicom is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Source: http://www.twinmusicom.org/song/280/heros-theme Artist: http://www.twinmusicom.org
Views: 17519 XtremeRealityCheck
YALI Network - Legal and Moral Obligations to Protect Human Rights
 
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The evolution of human rights law and treaties that outline the minimum legal standard of treatment that must be afforded to everyone.
Views: 21738 ShareAmerica
International Law   Treaties
 
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Explains the ratification process, details of treaty research and process to validate or update treaty status.
Views: 17613 BC Law Reference
What's the deal with treaties?
 
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The need for treaties and the rationale behind the treaty negotiations process are explored by high schools students in this 2000 video. They develop an understanding of the political, historical, economic and legal factors behind treaties.
Views: 1603 BC Treaty Commission
Vienna Convention on Law of Treaties - International Tax Treaty (DTAA)
 
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"Vienna Convention on Law of Treaties - International Tax Treaty (DTAA) International Tax Treaty (DTAA) Online Course - https://learn.arinjayacademy.com/learn/International-tax-course?"
The current core of IHL treaties
 
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C1V7DEF.mp4 LVNIHLXX2017-V000800
How the Treaty of Waitangi gives our work meaning
 
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How the Treaty of Waitangi gives our work meaning
Treaty of Waitangi
 
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Produced in 1993, what has changed? This documentary examines the Treaty between the Crown and Māori.
Views: 12247 TangataWhenuaHD
Hague Treaty Child Abduction Law Thailand
 
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Chaninat and Leeds discusses the Hague Convention on Child Abduction Law in Thailand. Thailand law firm providing legal advice on Company law, contracts, divorce, prenuptial agreements, marital law, last will and testament, probate, adoption, guardianship, land purchase, land lease, buying condos, mortgage, usa immigration law, fiance visa, fraud, trademark. The information provided in this video does not constitute legal advice and is provided for informational purposes only. Persons wishing to seek advice are advised to consult with a licensed qualified attorney. For More Information, please go to http://www.thailand-lawyer.com/hague-... For more information on legal matters in Thailand visit our website: http://www.thailand-lawyer.com
LAW121 - Legal Realism & CLS
 
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Legal realists assert that judges hold the key to law's influence. In New Zealand and other Western liberal democracies, law is practised as an adversarial exercise between two antagonistic parties with a judge possessing adjudicatory powers. How do judges go about making their decisions? They are, of course, guided by their interpretation of the law. However, being human means being influenced by other factors such as feelings, moods, alliances, and preferences. Legal realists highlight the fundamental importance of personality in the outcome of a dispute. Likewise, critical legal studies theory challenges law's alleged impartiality. A simple glance at society establishes how diverse our society ha become. Yet, the majority of lawyers, legislators, and judges are middle-aged, middle to upper class, white Christian men. Can the law be said to be impartial when a group rather unrepresentative of society is responsible for crafting the law, executing the law, and resolving disputes about the law? Some critical theorists even argue that law operates as a tool of privilege and power in historical and contemporary society.
Views: 41295 mohsenalattar1

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